Design Guidance


This guidance has been developed to support partners with the implementation of temporary active travel facilities in Scotland, through Scottish Government’s Spaces for People fund, which is administered by Sustrans.

Spaces for People is designed to improve health and wellbeing so that everyone is able to move around their local area safely while keeping to physical distancing requirements as we transition through and out of the COVID-19 crisis.

Walking, cycling or wheeling in fresh air is not only positive for physical health, but also helps people feel connected in times of isolation, and can allow communities discover their neighbourhood.

Any temporary measures put in place should make an area better, and care should always be taken to ensure people with disabilities and other groups in need additional support are considered appropriately

Overview


Atkins worked collaboratively with Sustrans to develop this content.

Content is derived from best practice examples from across the globe. It is intended to provide inspiration for the design of temporary facilities and should not be seen as a prescriptive design solution.

Each topic area includes advisory text, examples of best practice and minimum design parameters where applicable.

Lane separators along Old Dalkeith Road in Edinburgh. These ensure the cycle lane remains free of parked vehicles for key workers whilst still allowing access to resident driveways.

Silverknowes Road in Edinburgh has been closed to vehicles in order to allow cyclists and pedestrians space to exercise whilst maintaining physical distance.

Temporary barriers and signage provide pedestrians with exclusive access rights to the road running through Drumpellier Country Park, North Lanarkshire.

Each area also includes road safety and mobility impairment considerations to guide the designer to providing mitigating measures from the outset.

Appropriate road safety risk assessments should be undertaken during design and road safety audits undertaken at appropriate stages before schemes are open for public use.

Content will be regularly reviewed and updated by Sustrans Scotland.


Please Note: The ideas, products and suggestions within this document are provided for information only and in relation to temporary facilities to help with the management of physical distancing and movement across town and city centres during covid-19. It provides a collection of national and international examples of temporary infrastructure which may be of use in designing similar schemes across Scotland. Sustrans and Atkins do not accept any liability in relation to the use of the content of this document. Where specific products are shown in this document, this does not constitute an endorsement of that product.

Timeline


Depending on the duration of time that temporary infrastructure is predicted to be in operation, different types of interventions may be more or less beneficial. The graphic below outlines some of considerations that might be made when selecting appropriate measures for differing timescales.

Although traffic cones and standing signage are effective in that they can be implemented quickly and easily, their utility is limited as a long-term solution. This is because of the ease with which they can be interfered with and otherwise circumvented. It is for this reason that semi-permanent solutions, such as heavy planters and bollards, may be more effective as long-term solutions.

The following downloadable PDF’s are flow charts which aim to articulate the possible project life cycle for delivering temporary active travel infrastructure, from receipt of funding to getting the infrastructure on the ground.

They include:

  1. Very quick, temporary traffic management style measures (cones, signs, etc)
  2. Semi-permanent interventions (bolt-down infrastructure, planters, etc)

Flow Chart for implementation of Temporary Active Travel Measures – Semi-permanent
Flow Chart for implementation of Temporary Active Travel Measures – Traffic Management

Please Note: These flow charts note indicative timelines which have been informed by timescales reported and observed, we are aware specific contexts mean these can vary considerably.

Walking and Wheeling


This section has been designed to provide a comprehensive overview of temporary infrastructure interventions as they relate to walking and wheeling. Reviewed June 10th

1. Walking and Wheeling

1.1 Widening Footways

Cross sections


It is expected that a minimum 3 metre footway width is needed to maintain physical distancing. This is the minimum for two pedestrians to cross and greater width is recommended to provide for users with pushchairs etc.

Potential options:

  • Widening into carriageway
  • Widening into parking bays
  • Widening into loading bays

Typical cross section example:


How existing carriageway space can be reallocated to expand a footway using temporary
infrastructure. Source: Atkins

Key considerations

  • Streets with high footfall will likely require greater width and/or separation by direction of travel.
  • Temporary expansion in to carriageway could be at carriageway level or built up to the same level as the footway but safe access between the two will be needed.
  • Additional space will be required to facilitate queuing outside shops.
  • Accessibility for mobility impaired users should be considered from the outset.
  • Physical separation from carriageway (more than markings or cones) will likely to be required to protect pedestrians and prevent misuse by others.
  • Experimental Traffic Regulation Order (TRO) or Temporary Traffic Regulation Order (TTRO) may be required.
  • Where dropped kerbs are used, consideration should be given to the longer term impacts of this on the network.

TTROs require no prior consultation and are relatively flexible. This gives local authorities the potential to assess and put in place temporary measures relatively quickly and responsively. More information can be found here.

Potential options for separation from carriageway


  • Temporary traffic management barriers/cones/markings a short term solution that may be subject to misuse (e.g. moving of cones and barriers for access and/or parking)
  • Temporary build outs a medium/long term solution that may provide a more permanent look and feel as well as increase the perception of safety amongst users. Could be implemented at parking bays and loading bays if removing them.
  • Satellite islands and lane separators a medium/long term solution that potentially increases the perception of safety for users and is less subject to misuse by others.


Temporary build-out example. Source: Atkins

Examples of satellite islands and lane separators for footway widening and specific key considerations


Satellite islands

  • Approx. 600mm wide
  • Requires gaps for drainage and crossing points
  • Potential for use in heritage environments
  • Could be considered a trip hazard, especially by those who are visually impaired

Lane separators

  • Requires gaps for drainage and crossing points
  • Approx. 500mm wide
  • Potential for use in heritage environments
  • Tonal contrast could help identify feature but still potentially help a trip hazard for some users.

Road Safety Considerations


  • Risk of slips, trips and falls where an existing kerb upstand segregates the new widened footway.
  • Risk of trip hazards caused by ‘feet’ of barrier.
  • Risk of slips, trips and falls when using thermoplastic paint on footways (particularly when wet).
  • Physical separation between extended footway and carriageway should be decided upon on a case by case basis taking in to account speed and volume of vehicular traffic and likely pedestrian flows. Fixed separating features will likely improve the user perception of safety when compared with cones and markings and help prevent unauthorised use by vehicles parking and loading etc.
  • Risk to visually impaired pedestrians where street furniture obstructs new footway width which may include existing cycle parking stands and street furniture, for example.
  • Risk of slips, trips and falls where different surfaces are used along a  walking route for example tarmac surfacing leading to cobbled surfacing.
  • Where widening footways in to carriageways, maintenance of drainage channels will be key to managing risks of slips, trips and falls associated with the build up of debris, localised ponding and ice in winter months.

       

Signage


As we ease out of lockdown and increased numbers of people return to our towns and cities, it is clear that we will need to adapt our interactions, routines and the way we move through space. New signage, information and wayfinding graphics will help people to adapt successfully. Done well in a coordinated clear manner, signage can make people feel more at ease in this time of uncertainty.

Key considerations:

  • Street signage provides a vital role in communicating street functions and  management regimes, to ensure appropriate
    user behaviours.
  • With additional signage comes street clutter.
  • Many town and city streets have very narrow footways, which can become obstructed through excessive use of sign poles.

        
Lamp post wrap sign. Source: Atkins   Bollard cover signage. Source: Atkins

Note: Images selected to illustrate types of signage and opportunities to utilise existing street furniture and signs and not necessarily to illustrate content.

As part of the new and increased signage required to  communicate the covid-19 requirements in our towns and cities, the following principles need to be considered:

A Coordinated Signage Strategy: How can signage guide a journey through a space successfully. Ensure that the route is easy to follow.

Positive Message: Communicate in a friendly manner. Some off the shelf signs could induce stress. Carefully consider the wording, colour palette and typography as all of this can alter the tone and readability.

Reflect the Identity of the Place: The number and appearance of the signage needs to be adaptable upon location. For example, the signage for a heritage location may require a different feel to that in a modern business or residential district. Consider an appropriate balance between increasing safe space for physical distancing and also retaining (or ideally raising) place quality.

Signage for all – Careful consideration to colour palette, font and size to ensure the signage can communicate as effectively as possible to all user groups. Contrast between lettering and background is essential.

Potential Signage Content


Note: All signage to use the term physical distance where appropriate and not refer to the 2 metre distance.

  • Welcome Back! We’re open for business
  • COVID-19 – Please maintain physical distance
  • COVID-19 – Thank you for practicing physical distancing
  • COVID-19 – Please respect local communities and those who may be at higher risk
  • COVID-19 – Please follow the one way system
  • COVID-19 – Please keep your distance


Positive messages. Source: Atkins                                                    A coordinated signage strategy. Source: Atkins

Siting Considerations for Signage


  • Existing posts, columns and structures should be used wherever possible.
  • Where signs facing moving traffic are erected above footways, or in areas likely or intended to be used by pedestrians, a headroom of 2300 mm is recommended, with 2100 mm as an absolute minimum. A clearance of at least 2400 mm should be maintained over a cycle track or a shared cycling and walking facility.
  • Where posts are erected on footways, there should be a preferred minimum of 1500 mm and an absolute minimum of 1000 mm of unobstructed width to allow the passage of wheelchairs, double buggies etc.


  Source: Atkins

Examples


Green = Short-term (immediate)
Purple = Medium-term  (6 – 18 months)
Orange = Long-term (18+ months)

Signage Type - ImageTimeframeAdvantagesDisadvantages
Floor Signage

  • Clear message

  • Readily Available

  • Adaptable - can be used as a reminder to physical-distance or as a queuing marker

  • Easy to remove

  • Adaptable to tie in with an overall signage strategy

  • Easily replace/removed if required


  • May become worn quickly

  • More difficult to apply to certain surfaces e.g. cobblestones.

Floor Stenciling

  • Fast installation

  • High impact clear message


  • Not part of a refined, coordinated strategy

  • Could be difficult to remove and would not be a preferred solution on high quality paving materials


Pedestrian and Cyclist Temporary Signage

  • Clear message

  • Many of these signs are already in place across our towns and cities to provide the necessary information

  • Readily available and can be installed quickly


  • Can appear quite intimidating

  • Often contribute to street clutter and take up space on the footway

  • Not part of overall signage strategy

  • May not be best placed in a heritage context long-term

Bus Stop Signage

  • Clear focused message targeted at a specific location and activity

  • Easy availability/printing that can be updated as required over time

  • Can be installed onto existing street furniture (bus shelters)

  • Potential to tie in to wider signage strategy

  • Easy to remove


  • May not be readable unless you are close to the sign

  • Easier to apply where bus shelters are present

Monolith Signage

  • Utilises existing signage opportunities either through new printed or digital displays

  • Potential to tie in to a wider signage strategy

  • Relatively easy to change the information that is displayed

  • Easy to remove


  • Locations are not flexible so may not be best placed

Banners Mounted on Lighting Columns

  • Utilises existing street furniture with new printed banners

  • Does not contribute to additional street clutter

  • Can be changed over time if required

  • Potential to tie in to a wider signage strategy

  • Relatively easy to remove


  • Not all towns have this existing signage opportunity

Bespoke Banners

  • Can incorporate into a wider signage strategy

  • Bespoke to the place

  • Large, clear message opportunity

  • Can be incorporated with new barriers or existing infrastructure for display

  • Easy to remove


  • Location needs to be carefully selected for large signs

  • Obstructs clear views through a space

Utilising Building Frontages

  • Utilises building frontages and blank facades to display signage and therefore not contributing to additional street clutter

  • Can be changed over time if required

  • Potential to tie in to a wider signage strategy

  • Easy to remove


  • Permissions required

  • Blank building facades are a good location for signage but needs to be an appropriate siting for the sign

Bollards incorporating signage

  • Combines street furniture and signage

  • Potential to tie in to overall signage strategy

  • More discreet signage opportunity

  • Neat, compact solution

  • Potential to tie in to overall signage strategy


  • Difficult to remove

  • Careful consideration needs to be given to siting and avoidance of unnecessary additional bollards.

Motion activated audio signage

  • When motion activated, an audio message is played

  • Provides an opportunity to use another method of communication

  • Extends to some wider user groups

  • Neat solution reducing street clutter strong metal casing and secure steel post fixing system

  • Easy to change the audio message

  • Messages bespoke to the place is easy to achieve

  • Solar technology means no power source is required

  • Innovative solution for the communication of public safety messages


  • Potentially could be quite repetitive and anyone working outdoors would hear messages repeatedly

  • If broken for any reason no message is visible. Would need to be in addition to more conventional signage

1.2 Managing Pedestrian Flows

Queuing And Pedestrian Flows in High Streets


  • Access to entry and exit routes at shops, public transport interchanges and public buildings should be maximised and clearly marked to reduce queues. Pedestrian ‘pinch points’ should be minimised by removing obstacles in the footway and pedestrian barriers.
  • Queuing and waiting areas should be defined using temporary signage and barriers plus use of marshals provided by the facility as appropriate. Extra space should be allowed where multiple queues may meet.
  • “This area is now full. Please check back later.” signs could be provided at popular destinations, when capacity reached. Opening times could be staggered for popular destinations.
  • Bus stops should be moved to areas which can accommodate queuing in line with physical distancing requirements.

Note: Responsibility for the management of queues outside shops, stations, bus stops and other businesses will likely rest with the operator.

Example Layout – Queue Zones and Pedestrian Movement

Allocation of queuing and movement space on a footway with phased office and retail opening
times. Source: Atkins

Key considerations

  • Markings and easily moved objects may not always result in consistent physical distancing.
  • Features that form barriers may prevent pedestrians moving into other areas to maintain physical distancing. The placement of and signs and location of queuing zones should allow other footway users space to pass safely.
  • Where possible signage should be attached to existing street furniture or building frontages.

Queuing and Pedestrian flows for residential areas


  • Many of the above high street measures could be considered at a smaller scale at local shops.
  • Enough space for physical distancing should be indicated at bus stops and crossing points.
  • Space for higher numbers of family groups and pushchairs should be allowed for at busy locations.
  • Access to entry and exit routes at schools and public buildings should be maximised with clearly marked separate entry and exit routes.

   
View of the Royal Mile in Edinburgh. May 2019 (left) and May 2020 (right). Source: Atkins

Additional considerations for Heritage Areas


  • Temporary measures in designated heritage areas should be reversible and avoid permanent change or damage to the valued qualities of the physical environment.
  • Any semi-permanent (1 year +) or permanent changes such as fixed street furniture, or placement of long term signage should comply with local planning and heritage designations, be of materials/ appearance appropriate to the heritage setting.

Examples


Signage

Signage and communications to remind pedestrians of distance requirements. This could include:

  • Crossing points and intersections
  • Entrances and exits
  • Bus stops and public transport interchanges

Markings to indicate physical distancing and queuing areas

These should be along the building frontage or within safe spaces where no footway obstruction is caused.

Mobility Impairment Considerations


Security considerations, and the impact of measures on people with disabilities and other groups, should be considered when designing temporary facilities.

This includes access for blue badge holders and may call for a balanced approach.

For pedestrian movement, these considerations might include the following:

  • Seating for elderly in waiting areas
  • Clearly marked ramps should be provided where levels change
    such as where pedestrian zones are extended into parking or carriageway areas
  • Pedestrian surfaces including temporary areas should be safe and even to walk on avoiding trip hazards and rough ground
  • Physical distancing measures should not create obstacles or hazards for visually impaired users
  • Marshals provided by shops or facilities could prioritise disabled or other vulnerable groups in queues

Road safety considerations


  • Route continuity: continuous routes should be provided to reduce the risk of injury to pedestrians having to negotiate breaks in the route.
  • Pedestrian awareness: Where pedestrian lanes are provided, the lane closest to the traffic lane should face the direction of oncoming traffic.
  • Expected flows: Where pedestrian flows are expected to be high, signs and road markings should be used to encourage pedestrians to keep to one side of the footway to improve movement.
  • Visually impaired pedestrians: Signs should utilise contrasting colours.
  • Road markings: where priority is given to pedestrians over vehicles, this should be made clear with the appropriate road markings.

   

1.3 Public Transport Interaction

Bus stop realignment


High Streets

  • Extra space should be provided for boarding and queuing at bus or tram stops in busy shopping streets or where this is not possible should be moved to areas which can accommodate queuing in line with physical distancing requirements.
  • Queuing areas should be defined at busy interchanges allowing sufficient footway space for pedestrians to pass safely.

Residential Streets

  • Busy bus stops next to schools, or local shops or facilities may require additional space in line with measures described for high streets.
  • Information on physical distancing should be indicated at bus stops.

Replacement / temporary bus boarder kerbs

  • Where temporary bus boarder kerbs are required or need to be temporarily extended to allow additional space for physical distancing.
  • Ensure level changes and ramps are clearly marked.

Signage of bus gates


A bus gate is a mechanism that gives buses priority over other traffic. This can be a physical barrier such as collapsible bollards or temporary barriers, signage, traffic lights or virtual mechanisms that are activated by bus proximity.

Mobility impairment considerations


  • Access across cycle lanes and tracks to reach a bus should be avoided but where this is not possible, consideration should be given to clearly highlighted areas for boarding and alighting buses which could
  •  include informal zebra crossings of the cycle lane or track. Temporary (stick on) markings for informal zebra crossings could provide a temporary solution that is easily reversible.
  • Any ramps or level changes associated with temporary bus boarders or extensions to existing bus boarders should be clearly marked.
  • Signs and markings setting out waiting zones should be clear and of appropriate colour and contrast to be easily read.
  • Posts, signs and bollards should not obstruct disabled access to board or alight the bus.
  • Bus operator ramp equipment (on vehicle) needs should be considered in the design process and liaison carried out with bus operators on this.

   

Road Safety Considerations


Pinch points at redundant bus stops creating an obstruction in pedestrian routes

Street furniture associated with bus stops which are temporarily relocated increase the risk of personal injury incidents. Consideration should be given to the reallocation of carriageway space at these sites to allow a safe route for pedestrians around the street furniture.

Temporary facilities for mobility impaired pedestrians at temporary bus stops

Temporary ramps for access to and from buses do exist, but their placement will be key to safe operation for users. Where cycle lanes or cycle tracks are provided between the existing footway and carriageway, a ramp structure is likely to block access for pedestrians and cyclists. Similarly, a ramp structure may present a hazard to vehicle occupants if struck from the carriageway.

Cycling Routes


This section has been designed to provide a comprehensive overview of temporary infrastructure interventions as they relate to cycling. Reviewed June 15th

                                   

2. Cycling Routes

2.1 General Information

Overview


As towns and cities re-open, appropriate access for cyclists will be key in maintaining movement, easing pressure on public transport services and facilitating physical distancing.

This is likely to include some of the following measures:

  • Temporary cycle lanes and tracks
  • Modal filter road closures
  • Reallocation of carriageway space
  • One-way localised traffic management
  • Contraflow cycling routes
  • Quiet street improvements
  • Reduced speed limits
  • City-wide traffic management solutions
  • Increased use of bus lanes for cyclists (where feasible)
  • Increased levels of cycle parking – both temporary and more permanent options
  • Increased cycle hire scheme provision

These options could be implemented as short, medium or long term measures as needed.

2.2 Temporary Cycle Lanes (One-way Travel)

Physical Distancing Principles


It is expected that temporary cycle lanes would not be subject to strict physical distancing rules as this would likely prohibit their implementation and therefore have a wider impact on movement across towns and cities. Cyclists overtaking one another or passing other cyclists are likely to be momentary instances and so providing full physical distancing along entire route lengths could prove unfeasible.

Temporary cycle lanes should be as wide as possible, but it is noted that narrower than usual lane widths (of around 1.5m for one-way travel) might be necessary in order to implement schemes.

Note: Where cycle lanes are used, the 1.5m should be the minimum absolute width to any separation feature (i.e. the separation feature should not be placed within the  overall 1.5m width)

Potential Options

  • Create new wide cycle lanes in existing carriageway space by removing traffic lanes.
  • Widen existing cycle lanes.
  • Bus lane times of operation could be amended to provide additional space for cyclists.

Key Considerations

  • Cycle lane provision should be considered in the context of local speed limits, with additional spatial allowances made as necessary to reflect prevailing speeds and traffic conditions.
  • Treatment at side roads and junctions needs to consider the needs of all road users and be unambiguous.
  • Existing carriageway surface quality will need to be considered (items such as potholes), as different surfacing types.
  • Loading and parking areas for shops and businesses could create conflict for cyclists.
  • Crossing points for pedestrians and for bus stops.
  • Use of ramps to facilitate pedestrian crossing of cycle tracks/lanes.
  • Road gradients should be considered as lanes along lower gradient routes are likely to be more attractive to users and higher gradients will result in higher cyclist speeds, increasing the potential for conflict.
  • Cycle lanes are generally expected to be one-way as two-way cycle traffic using temporary cycle lanes could create significant conflict at junctions.

Typical Cross Section Arrangements


Footway – Cycle Lane – Carriageway                                                         Footway – On Street Parking (Open) – Cycle Lane – Carriageway

   

Cycle Lane – Carriageway                                                                                   Footway – On Street Parking (Closed) – Cycle Lane – Carriageway

                                       

Reduced Carriageway Lane Widths

  • Where cycle lanes are provided by expansion into existing carriageways, the resultant reduced carriageway lane widths should be considered in terms of the prevailing traffic speeds, volumes and vehicle types.  Narrowing carriageways is likely to be necessary to implement temporary cycle lanes.
  • Where buses will be using the reduced carriageway width, the designer should consider the needs of two buses passing each other, which is likely to require a minimum of 6.5m  carriageway width – which may also require reduced speed limits to enable this.

Footway – Cycle LaneLoading (or Parking) Bay – Carriageway                            Footway – With Flow Bus Lane – Carriageway

     

Footway – Cycle lane – Bus Lane – Carriageway                                                One Way Cycle Tracks (at footway level)

 

Typical Cross Section Arrangements – Examples


Carriageway converted into temporary cycle lane – Glasgow                                           Closed parking bays alongside temporary cycle lane – Glasgow
   

Carriageway converted to temporary cycle lane – Glasgow                                                Bus lane converted to temporary cycle lane – Leicester
   

Cross Section Notes


  • The cross sections are indicative and are intended for roads of speed ≤ 30mph. For higher speed roads, additional separation distances  and features should be considered.
  • Where minimum widths are stated, this should not be the target. Cycle lane widths should be as wide as possible to improve the user experience.
  • Wider cycle lanes help facilitate overtaking opportunities which allow for physical distancing. Where this is not possible, signage to discourage cyclist overtaking could be used.
  • Separation features will likely vary depending on the various other needs of the local area.

Note: the examples below show ideas only. Please see Signage section of this guide for advice on placement of signs and sign types

                     
Signage prohibiting vehicles from overtaking                 Signage example promoting physical distancing via single                    International signage example

cyclists through a narrow lane                                        file travel through a narrow shared path                                               prohibiting cyclists from overtaking

  • Subject to the characteristics of the parking bays, it may be possible to use the space as part of the temporary cycle lane or to provide space for positioning of signage and/or temporary cycle parking.
  • Where they are to remain open, appropriate ‘buffer’ space should be considered to avoid encroachment of parked vehicles into cycle lanes and opening of vehicle doors.
  • Careful consideration is also required to maintain provision of parking for mobility impaired users, including separation distances required for access to and from vehicles.
  • Reducing the speed limit can provide a more attractive and safer environment for cycling and could be a possible measure to supplement temporary infrastructure.

Key Considerations

  • Temporary TRO required to introduce new speed limits.
  • Reduced speed limits could be extended permanently.

Separation Features


Separation features improve the level of service afforded to users by increasing the perception of safety and helping avoid conflict.

These include features both within and between user groups.

Options for cycle lanes may include markings, lines, moveable infrastructure (e.g. cones) and physical infrastructure.

Cycle Lane Separators                                                                                                         Temporary Lines, Berlin
     
Cycle Lane Defenders                                                                                                           Lining and Cones, Glasgow
     

Key Considerations

Temporary ramps for access to and from buses do exist, but their placement will be key to safe operation for users. Where cycle lanes or cycle tracks are provided between the existing footway and carriageway, a ramp structure is likely to block access for pedestrians and cyclists. Similarly, a ramp structure may present a hazard to vehicle occupants if struck from the carriageway.

  • Markings and easily moved objects such as cones are likely to be subject to misuse.
  • Continuous separation removes possibility for users to extend into other areas to maintain social distancing and could also restrict permeability in some cases.
  • Length of time segregation will be in place (e.g. short-term, medium term, long term).
  • Procurement, installation, and maintenance.
  • Conservation area considerations.
  • Some separation features may have an adverse on other road users such as motorcyclists.

Separation Materials


Green = Short-term – Immediate

Purple = Medium-term – 6 to 18m

Orange = Long term – +18m

NameUseKey PointsExample



Flexi Cylinder Self Righting Delineator
Post and Temporary Lines


  • Easy installation

  • Low Cost

  • Maintenance implications - Potential to be dislodged

  • May offer less in terms of safety perception

  • May not be appropriate for heritage areas




Cycle Lane Defenders

  • Robust

  • Drainage gaps required

  • Higher cost



Satellite Islands

  • Robust

  • Drainage gaps required

  • Potentially onerous spatial requirements (600mm wide)

  • Heritage finish available

  • Higher cost


Lane Separators

  • Robust

  • Drainage gaps required

  • Heritage finish available

  • Higher cost

Transitions


Occasionally it will be necessary to provide a transition from on-carriageway cycle lanes to off-carriageway cycle tracks, or to re-merge cycle lanes with carriageway space. Transitions should be clear, smooth, safe and comfortable for cyclists. Minimum speed change and vertical and/or horizontal deflection for cyclists should be the objective.


Typical layout for cycle lane (carriageway level) transitioning to cycle track (footway level)


Typical layout for cycle track (footway level) transitioning to cycle lane (carriageway level)

  • Where a cycle track re-joins the carriageway, a cycle route transition should be provided which is smooth and gradual. In a temporary layout, this may include a temporary ramp structure.
  • Cycle symbol markings and advisory/mandatory lane markings may be useful to highlight the presence of cyclists where a cycle lane re-merges with traffic on the carriageway.
  • The transition section should ideally run parallel to the carriageway. Cyclists should not be required to look behind themselves at difficult angles in order to re-enter the carriageway.
  • Transitions from cycle lanes back to carriageway should not be close to road junctions as this may introduce additional conflicts.
  • Signage may be useful to heighten awareness to other road users at merges and transitions but may require approval on a scheme by scheme basis where the content is not currently prescribed.


 Examples of signage to heighten driver awareness at transitions and merge points

Note: Whilst desirable, it may not be achievable to provide coloured surfacing or tactile paving within a temporary layout.

2.3 Temporary Cycle Tracks (Two-way Travel)

Cycle Track Options


A cycle track may be either:

  • Cycle track at carriageway level – at the same level as motor traffic but separated by physical means (i.e. kerbing).
  • Stepped cycle track – adjacent to the carriageway and separated vertically from both the road carriageway and the footway.
  • Cycle track at footway level – adjacent to the road carriageway and separated vertically from the road carriageway.
  • Cycle track away from the road.

Each gives an increasing level of protection from motor traffic and comfort for cycle users.

In some cases, existing cycle tracks may need to be closed to provide additional footway space, meaning the cycle track route needs to be re-provided as a cycle lane on the carriageway.


Cycle Track at Footway Level

Key considerations

  • Treatment at side roads and junctions needs to consider the needs of all road users and be unambiguous.
  • Cycle track provision should be considered in the context of local speed limits, with additional spatial allowances made as necessary to reflect prevailing speeds and traffic conditions.
  • Existing carriageway surface quality will need to be considered (items such as potholes), as well as different surfacing types and drainage implications.
  • Loading and parking areas for shops and businesses could create conflict for cyclists.
  • Crossings for pedestrians and for bus stops may require temporary markings (e.g. informal zebra markings).
  • Use of ramps to facilitate pedestrian crossing of cycle tracks may impede one direction of travel more than the other.
  • Potential for conflict with other users where two-way traffic is carried through a priority junction. This is particularly relevant on downhill gradients where cyclists may be approaching junctions at speed from a direction that drivers are not expecting.
  • Two-way cycle tracks will need some form of segregation feature along the centre such as lines/markings.

Cross Sections


It is expected that temporary cycle tracks would not be subject to strict physical distancing rules as this could prohibit their implementation.

Cyclists overtaking one another or passing other cyclists are likely to be momentary instances and so providing full physical distancing along entire route lengths could prove unfeasible.

Temporary cycle tracks should be as wide as possible, but it is noted that minimum widths of around 3m for two-way travel might be necessary in order to implement schemes.

Note: Where cycle tracks are used, the 3m should be the minimum width to any separation feature (i.e. the separation feature should not be placed within the 3m width).

Typical Cross Section Arrangements


Two-way cycle track at footway level


One-way stepped cycle track at footway level

 


Two-way cycle tack at carriageway level

Reduced Carriageway Lane Widths

  • Where cycle tracks are provided by expansion into existing carriageways, the resultant reduced carriageway lane widths should be considered in terms of the prevailing traffic speeds, volumes and vehicle types.  Narrowing carriageways is likely to be necessary to implement temporary cycle tracks.
  • Where buses will using be the reduced carriageway width, the designer should consider the needs of two buses passing each other, which is likely to require a minimum of 6.5m carriageway width – which may also require reduced speed limits to enable this.

Separation distances and effective width


Where street furniture and other fixed objects are in place, it is desirable to design additional clearance for the comfort and safety of users.

Note: Clearances below are to be treated as advisory in temporary situations.

ObjectMin Clearance (m)
Low Upstand ≤ 50mmNil
Kerb Height 50mm to 150mm0.2m
Continuous feature of height <1.2m or
an isolated feature of any height (e.g.
sign post, cabinet, lighting column)
0.25m
Continuous feature of height >1.2m or
a bridge parapet of any height 
0.5m
Carriageway0.5*

*For roads with a speed limit in excess of 40mph the desirable minimum clearance between a carriageway and cycle track will be greater.

Separation features – Examples


NameKey PointsExample
Flexible Kerbing Systems

  • Bolt down product requiring no excavation

  • Lightweight

  • Can be fixed to tarmac or concrete surfaces

  • Can be made from recycled materials
Pre-cast Concrete Kerbing Systems

  • Stick down product requiring no excavation

  • Temporary or permanent fixture (note - can be difficult to remove at a later date)

  • Bespoke kerb types available for  schemes i.e. surface treated in factory

Key Considerations

  • Length of time segregation will be in place (e.g. short-term, medium term, long term).
  • Procurement, installation, and maintenance cost.
  • Conservation area considerations.
  • Impact on services and street furniture.
  • Temporary or Permanent – ability to be removed easily.

Transitions


Occasionally it will be necessary to provide a transition from a cycle track to a cycle lane, or to re-merge cycle tracks with carriageway traffic such as in quiet street environments.

Transitions should be clear, smooth, safe and comfortable for cyclists. Minimum speed change and vertical and/or horizontal deflection for cyclists should be the objective.


Examples of signage to heighten driver awareness of cyclists at transitions and merges

  • Where a cycle track re-joins the carriageway, a cycle route transition should be provided which is smooth and gradual. In a temporary layout, this may include the use of a ramp structure.
  • The resultant feature may take the form of a temporary cycle lane or quiet streets arrangement without formal separation, if appropriate.
  • Cycle symbol markings and advisory/mandatory lane markings may be useful to highlight the presence of cyclists.
  • Transition sections should ideally run parallel to the carriageway. Cyclists should not be required to look behind themselves at difficult angles in order to re-enter the carriageway.
  • Signage can be used to heighten awareness of the facility to other road users at merges and transitions but will likely require approval on a scheme by scheme basis where not already prescribed.


Transition from cycle track (footway level) ramped to cycle lane (carriageway level)

Note: Whilst desirable, it may not be achievable to provide coloured surfacing or tactile paving within a temporary layout.

2.4 Cycling on Quiet Streets

With Vehicular Traffic


For streets of appropriate character, and where traffic speeds/ volumes are low, it may be possible to improve access for cyclists with relatively ‘light touch’ interventions.

Typically this will allow cyclists to share the carriageway space with vehicular traffic, without the need for separation features.

Options may include:

  • Applying temporary road markings to heighten awareness of cyclists.
  • Reducing existing speed limits.
  • Temporary signage.
  • Control traffic types and volumes, as well as direction of travel.
  • Allowing cyclist contraflows on one-way streets to increase permeability.


Cycling on a quiet street – Cardiff

Benefits of cycling on quiet streets include:

  • The directness and coherence of cycle journeys can be improved.
  • The visibility of cyclists, particularly at junctions can be improved.
  • Conflict with pedestrians can be reduced.
  • Traffic volume and speed control has wider benefits – for pedestrians, for example.

Key Considerations

  • Where existing streets are deemed to be suitable, the designer should still seek to consider whether changes can be made to the volume, speed and composition of traffic to improve cycling conditions.
  • Where on-street parking may cause difficulties for cyclists, its removal should be considered.
  • Integration with existing and/or proposed cycling routes should be considered to ensure onward connectivity.
  • One-way vehicle flow along streets is particularly attractive for cyclists. However, it may be necessary for a one-way street TRO to include an exemption for cyclists to facilitate permeability and avoid moving a conflict point elsewhere.

Without Vehicular Traffic


For streets of appropriate character, and where traffic volumes are low, it may be possible to restrict vehicular access (temporarily or permanently) to reallocate the entire carriageway space for cyclists and pedestrians.

   
Before (left) and after (right) a street was reallocated to pedestrians and cyclists only – Kelvin Way, Glasgow

Key Considerations

  • Where streets are deemed to be suitable, the designer should still seek to consider the impact of any temporary or permanent restrictions on vehicular traffic on the surrounding road network.
  • Potential hazards resulting from interaction of cyclists and pedestrians within a shared carriageway – segregation of pedestrians and cyclists should be considered, and footway provision maintained where possible.
  • Integration with existing and/or proposed cycling routes should be considered to ensure onward connectivity.
  • Where vehicular access needs to be maintained for local residents and/or bus services, a ‘cycle street’ approach may be suitable, whereby interventions may be provided to indicate cyclist priority over vehicular traffic.

2.5 Junction Treatments

Limited Case History


There is little evidence currently available regarding best practice for temporary junction treatment measures. Ultimately the optimum solution at junctions will likely be dependent upon the characteristics of the local environment, as well as the ambitions for the temporary measures implemented (i.e. period of implementation, volume of users etc.).

Therefore, where appropriate the designer should refer to existing design guidance for the development of permanent cycling infrastructure and temporary traffic management to inform their scheme design at junctions.

Key Considerations

  • Cycle lanes at priority junctions will not be able to have separation features across the minor arm if the junction operation is to be maintained.
  • Cyclist priority at junctions will need to be decided upon and maintained consistently throughout a route and/or city-wide area.
  • If raised temporary structures are used at junctions (e.g. across a side/minor road), this will have wider implications for other traffic and the product used should be robust enough to withstand vehicular traffic.
  • Access for mobility and visually impaired users at or near crossings at junctions will need to be considered form the outset to avoid conflict.
  • Treatment of junctions to accommodate two-way cycle tracks is more challenging as other road users may not anticipate cyclist travelling in both directions at the junction.
  • Layouts that place the cyclist within a vehicle driver’s normal field of vision are less hazardous than those that place the cyclist out with the driver’s field of vision.


Example of a cycle lane at a simple priority junction – Taunton

2.6 Parking, Loading and Taxi Ranks

Loading and parking bays


As businesses begin to re-open, loading bays will be key to replenishing stocks. Some loading bays may have already been used for alternative purposes such as temporary cycle lanes, tracks or widened footways and alternative loading arrangements may need to be sought.

Where cycling routes are implemented on streets containing loading bays, consideration should be given to:

  • Alternative loading locations
  • Routes between businesses and alternative loading locations – are the routes suitable for transporting goods by trolley etc?
  • New informal loading bays on main streets
  • Gaps in cycle lanes and cycle tracks to allow goods to be delivered to businesses
  • The option of identifying specific delivery times off-peak for goods deliveries

Provision of a temporary cycle lane to the offside of parking or loading bays may result in the need for the closure of the bays to avoid conflicts between cyclists and drivers of vehicles, particularly where higher cyclist flows are expected.

Where bays are retained, the operation of parking bays, loading bays (and taxi ranks) needs careful consideration to ensure a rationalised and safe flow of vehicles to/from these areas. This should include consideration of separation distances to reflect delivery requirements and /or access across cycle tracks with goods.


Typical layout example of parking (or loading) bays maintained adjacent (offside) to cycle lane (left). Typical layout example of parking (or loading) bays
maintained adjacent (nearside) to cycle lane where bays may be closed or remain open depending on the local context (right)

Where bays are retained, the operation of parking bays, loading bays (and taxi ranks) needs careful consideration to ensure a rationalised and safe flow of vehicles to/from these areas. This should include consideration of separation distances to reflect delivery requirements and /or access across cycle tracks with goods.


Example of layout to accommodate loading alongside cycle lane – Milan

2.7 Temporary Cycle Parking

Types of temporary cycle parking


There are several types of temporary cycle parking that can be installed relatively quickly, including:

  • Proprietary products (i.e. temporary cycle racks or Sheffield Stands) bolted into the ground – so could be removed at a later date if necessary.
  • Other non-proprietary solutions e.g. use of pedestrian barriers.

The appropriate solution will be subject to consideration of capacity and availability of appropriate locations within the overall streetscape.

Cycle parking capacities and layouts

Capacities and layouts for types of temporary parking will be determined by available street space, the solution implemented and the anticipated volume of users. The images below provide an indication of typical spatial requirements and layouts for non-adapted cycle parking which can be used to determine suitable locations and capacity.

Note: Spatial requirements for adapted cycles are available at the Sustrans Design Guidance

Key considerations

  • Cycle parking should not be placed in locations where it would reduce the available footway width or pose a risk to mobility impaired pedestrians.
  • Security of temporary cycle parking – natural surveillance.
  • Cycle parking placed in parking bays or in the carriageway where space allows is likely most appropriate, although a TRO may be required to suspend parking bays.
  • No evidence to suggest that physical distancing needs to be maintained between cycle parking spaces.

Temporary Cycle Parking – Examples


  
Contemporary cycle parking                                               Non-propriety Cycle Parking at an Event                           Sheffield Stand Temporary Cycle Parking

   
Propriety Temporary Cycle Parking

Temporary cycle parking positioning

  • Visible (signposted as necessary), accessible and convenient
  • Secure i.e. well overlooked where possible.
  • Well laid out to aid access/egress and provide ample locking points.

2.8 Mobility Impairment and Safety Considerations

Mobility Impairment Considerations


Key Considerations

  • Existing controlled crossings will likely need to be maintained and accommodated within temporary cycle lanes.
  • Where bus stops are provided to the offside of cycle lanes or tracks, access to the bus stop across the cycle lane will need to be considered and appropriate measures to warn cyclist of the crossing should be included such as signage, markings and clear visibility to the crossing point. Waiting areas should be large enough to cater for expected demand and not obstruct cycling routes to help avoid conflict with mobility impaired pedestrians.
  • Cycle parking should not be placed in locations where it would reduce the available footway width or pose a risk to mobility impaired pedestrians.

 
Crossing of one-way cycle track to access bus stop                                                Example of a temporary bus boarder across cycle track

Road Safety Considerations


Cycle Lanes

  • Narrowing traffic lanes – Narrow traffic lanes increase the risk of side swipe collisions. Careful consideration should be given to routes heavily trafficked by HGVs and buses.Narrow lanes may encourage dangerous overtaking and therefore visibility should be examined.
  • Extensive use of road markings – There is a risk that extensive use of road markings could result in cyclists slipping on them (especially when wet), which is particularly relevant at junctions, bends or braking areas. Markings with a suitable skid resistance should be used.


Cycle lane using suitable marking material on a carriageway – Glasgow

  • Interaction at side roads – There is an increased risk of a cyclist being struck by a vehicle emerging from a side road where drivers are unaware of a temporary cycle lane or if priority is unclear. Adequate warning should be provided i.e. Road markings and traffic signs on side road approaches and priority should be unambiguous to all road users.
  • Surface finishes – Some surface finishes may increase the risk of skidding, particularly during periods of wet weather or ice. The suitability of the surface finish for cyclists should be considered when implementing temporary cycle lanes.
  • Existing surface quality – Avoid providing cycle lanes where the existing surface condition is poor and consider the ongoing maintenance requirements to ensure surface quality is maintained.

Cycle Tracks

Trip hazard to pedestrians – Temporary physical separation measures may pose a trip hazard. Consider measures to maximise visibility of temporary features such as high visibility markings and contrasting colours.

Features being struck by road users – There is a risk that motorcyclists will strike low level segregation features fixed to the carriageway. Visibility, orientation and available widths are all important factors in reducing this risk.

Passively safe features – Impact with roadside features increases the potential severity of a collision. Passively safe features will reduce the damage to a vehicle in the event of a collision and reduce the risk of injury to occupants.

Note: More information on how different features are perceived by the different user groups can be found Glasgow City Council’s Cycle Lane Soft Segregation Trial Report

Note: Post–implementation monitoring should be undertaken to allow for adjustments to mitigate unforeseen issues during the design stage.

2.9 Signage

Types of temporary signage


Traditional temporary signage is likely to be used in the short term, and electronic signage could be utilised temporarily as more drivers return to the road to warn drivers of changes to layouts, priorities and the presence of cyclists.

Placement of signage

  • Placement of signs is very important so as to not decrease space for other users i.e. avoid placement which will reduce effective width of temporary cycle lanes/tracks or adjacent footways.
  • Where possible signage should be within unused space i.e. verges, separation buffers etc. Some separation features allow for the inclusion of signage to identify cycling routes.
  • Placement is a critical consideration for mobility impaired users and should not obstruct routes.
  • A minimum clearance of 2.4m is suggested for any mounted sign in the vicinity of a cycle lane or cycle track.

Branding/wording

  • Should be concise, clear, consistent and unambiguous.
  • Standard and bespoke signage should be used as necessary to designate function/priority/restrictions of temporary cycle lanes/tracks. Bespoke signage may require approval on a scheme-by-scheme basis but is likely to enable a clearer message to be conveyed to users to explain unusual layouts.

Signage for Cyclists – Examples



                                                                On-Street parking bays made inaccessible could be used to place signage

Additional Resources


This section includes links to useful guidance around the delivery of temporary walking and cycling interventions. We will add to these links as more guidance becomes available.

Any guidance used should be applicable to your specific context. All interventions should comply with the relevant regulations in your context.


UK Government: Safer Public Places During Covid

Sustrans: Covid-adapted School Travel Measures

Transport Scotland: Guidance on Temporary Traffic Regulation Orders and Notices (COVID-19)

Department for Transport (DfT): Reallocating road space in response to COVID-19

Department for Transport (DfT): Traffic signs to support physical distancing

Urban Design Group: Fast Urban Change – a how to guide

Landscape Institute: Seven design principles for pop-up infrastructure

Transport For London: Streetspace for London guidance

Living Streets: A guide to low traffic neighbourhoods

National Association of City Transportation Officials: Streets for Pandemic Response and Recovery 

The Mobility and Access Committee for Scotland (MACS): Temporary Street measures during Coronavirus crisis

Various Scottish Active Travel Organisations: Active Travel Code of Conduct