This resources provided here relate specifically to the Spaces for People programme.

Design Guidance


This guidance has been developed to support partners with the implementation of temporary active travel facilities in Scotland, through Scottish Government’s Spaces for People fund, which is administered by Sustrans.

Spaces for People is designed to improve health and wellbeing so that everyone is able to move around their local area safely while keeping to physical distancing requirements as we transition through and out of the Covid-19 crisis.

Walking, cycling or wheeling in fresh air is not only positive for physical health, but also helps people feel connected in times of isolation, and can allow communities discover their neighbourhood.

Any temporary measures put in place should make an area better, and care should always be taken to ensure people with disabilities and other groups in need additional support are considered appropriately.

Overview


Atkins worked collaboratively with Sustrans to develop this content.

Content is derived from best practice examples from across the globe. It is intended to provide inspiration for the design of temporary facilities and should not be seen as a prescriptive design solution.

Each topic area includes advisory text, examples of best practice and minimum design parameters where applicable.

Reallocated parking and a one-way traffic flow has allowed a permanent cycle lane on Rosemount Place in Aberdeen to be introduced.

Silverknowes Road in Edinburgh has been closed to vehicles in order to allow cyclists and pedestrians space to exercise whilst maintaining physical distance.

Temporary barriers have been installed along Millburn Road in Inverness, providing a temporary segregated cycleway for key workers at Raigmore Hospital.

Each area also includes road safety and mobility impairment considerations to guide the designer to providing mitigating measures from the outset.

Appropriate road safety risk assessments should be undertaken during design and road safety audits undertaken at appropriate stages before schemes are open for public use.

Content will be regularly reviewed and updated by Sustrans Scotland.


Please Note: The ideas, products and suggestions within this document are provided for information only and in relation to temporary facilities to help with the management of physical distancing and movement across town and city centres during covid-19. It provides a collection of national and international examples of temporary infrastructure which may be of use in designing similar schemes across Scotland. Sustrans and Atkins do not accept any liability in relation to the use of the content of this document. Where specific products are shown in this document, this does not constitute an endorsement of that product.

Contents

Read the online guidance for the most updates versions where we will be revising the content based on feedback from our partners and adding case studies from project that have been delivered.

For offline access you can download the PDF. We encourage you to check the relevant section online prior to developing your final design to ensure that you are using the most up to date advice.

PDF version (updated 31 July, 2020)


1. Walking and Wheeling

1.1 Widening Footways

1.2 Managing Pedestrian Flows

1.3 Public Transport Interaction

2. Cycling Routes

2.1 General Information

2.2 Temporary Cycle Lanes (One-way Travel)

2.3 Temporary Cycle Lanes (Two-way Travel)

2.4 Cycling on Quiet Streets

2.5 Junction Treatments

2.6 Parking, Loading and Taxi Ranks

2.7 Speed Management

2.8 Temporary Cycle Parking

2.9 Mobility Impairment and Safety Considerations

2.10 Signage

3. Traffic Management

3.1 Modal Filters

3.2 Pedestrian Guardrail Removal

3.3 Providing Temporary Guardrailing

3.4 Transport Hubs

3.5 Parks and Open Spaces

4. Signage

4.1 Designing Signage for All

4.2 Advisory Signage for Covid-19

4.3 Walking and Wheeling Signage Principles

4.4 Cycling Route Signage Principles

4.5 Traffic Management Signage Principles

4.6 Walking and Wheeling Signage Examples

4.7 Cycling Route Signage Examples

4.8 Traffic Management Signage Examples

Timeline


Depending on the duration of time that temporary infrastructure is predicted to be in operation, different types of interventions may be more or less beneficial. The graphic below outlines some of considerations that might be made when selecting appropriate measures for differing timescales.

Although traffic cones and standing signage are effective in that they can be implemented quickly and easily, their utility is limited as a long-term solution. This is because of the ease with which they can be interfered with and otherwise circumvented. It is for this reason that semi-permanent solutions, such as heavy planters and bollards, may be more effective as long-term solutions.

The following downloadable PDF’s are flow charts which aim to articulate the possible project life cycle for delivering temporary active travel infrastructure, from receipt of funding to getting the infrastructure on the ground.

They include:

  1. Very quick, temporary traffic management style measures (cones, signs, etc)
  2. Semi-permanent interventions (bolt-down infrastructure, planters, etc)

Flow Chart for implementation of Temporary Active Travel Measures – Semi-permanent
Flow Chart for implementation of Temporary Active Travel Measures – Traffic Management

Please Note: These flow charts note indicative timelines which have been informed by timescales reported and observed, we are aware specific contexts mean these can vary considerably.

Walking and Wheeling


This section has been designed to provide a comprehensive overview of temporary infrastructure interventions as they relate to walking and wheeling. Reviewed August 17th

                           

1. Walking and Wheeling

1.1 Widening Footways

Cross sections


It is expected that a minimum 3 metre footway width is needed to maintain physical distancing. This is the minimum for two pedestrians to cross and greater width is recommended to provide for users with pushchairs etc.

Potential options:

  • Widening into carriageway
  • Widening into parking bays
  • Widening into loading bays

Typical cross section example:


How existing carriageway space can be reallocated to expand a footway using temporary
infrastructure. Source: Atkins

Key considerations

  • Streets with high footfall will likely require greater width and/or separation by direction of travel.
  • Temporary expansion in to carriageway could be at carriageway level or built up to the same level as the footway but safe access between the two will be needed.
  • Additional space will be required to facilitate queuing outside shops.
  • Accessibility for mobility impaired users should be considered from the outset.
  • Physical separation from carriageway (more than markings or cones) will likely to be required to protect pedestrians and prevent misuse by others.
  • Experimental Traffic Regulation Order (TRO) or Temporary Traffic Regulation Order (TTRO) may be required.
  • Where dropped kerbs are used, consideration should be given to the longer term impacts of this on the network.

TTROs require no prior consultation and are relatively flexible. This gives local authorities the potential to assess and put in place temporary measures relatively quickly and responsively. More information can be found here.

Potential options for separation from carriageway


  • Temporary traffic management barriers/cones/markings a short term solution that may be subject to misuse (e.g. moving of cones and barriers for access and/or parking)
  • Temporary build outs a medium/long term solution that may provide a more permanent look and feel as well as increase the perception of safety amongst users. Could be implemented at parking bays and loading bays if removing them.
  • Satellite islands and lane separators a medium/long term solution that potentially increases the perception of safety for users and is less subject to misuse by others.


Temporary build-out example. Source: Atkins

Examples of satellite islands and lane separators for footway widening and specific key considerations


Satellite islands

  • Approx. 600mm wide
  • Requires gaps for drainage and crossing points
  • Potential for use in heritage environments
  • Could be considered a trip hazard, especially by those who are visually impaired

Lane separators

  • Requires gaps for drainage and crossing points
  • Approx. 500mm wide
  • Potential for use in heritage environments
  • Tonal contrast could help identify feature but still potentially help a trip hazard for some users.

Road Safety Considerations


  • Risk of slips, trips and falls where an existing kerb upstand segregates the new widened footway.
  • Risk of trip hazards caused by ‘feet’ of barrier.
  • Risk of slips, trips and falls when using thermoplastic paint on footways (particularly when wet).
  • Physical separation between extended footway and carriageway should be decided upon on a case by case basis taking in to account speed and volume of vehicular traffic and likely pedestrian flows. Fixed separating features will likely improve the user perception of safety when compared with cones and markings and help prevent unauthorised use by vehicles parking and loading etc.
  • Risk to visually impaired pedestrians where street furniture obstructs new footway width which may include existing cycle parking stands and street furniture, for example.
  • Risk of slips, trips and falls where different surfaces are used along a  walking route for example tarmac surfacing leading to cobbled surfacing.
  • Where widening footways in to carriageways, maintenance of drainage channels will be key to managing risks of slips, trips and falls associated with the build up of debris, localised ponding and ice in winter months.

       

Signage


As we ease out of lockdown and increased numbers of people return to our towns and cities, it is clear that we will need to adapt our interactions, routines and the way we move through space. New signage, information and wayfinding graphics will help people to adapt successfully. Done well in a coordinated clear manner, signage can make people feel more at ease in this time of uncertainty.

Key considerations:

  • Street signage provides a vital role in communicating street functions and  management regimes, to ensure appropriate
    user behaviours.
  • With additional signage comes street clutter.
  • Many town and city streets have very narrow footways, which can become obstructed through excessive use of sign poles.

        
Lamp post wrap sign. Source: Atkins   Bollard cover signage. Source: Atkins

Note: Images selected to illustrate types of signage and opportunities to utilise existing street furniture and signs and not necessarily to illustrate content.

As part of the new and increased signage required to  communicate the covid-19 requirements in our towns and cities, the following principles need to be considered:

A Coordinated Signage Strategy: How can signage guide a journey through a space successfully. Ensure that the route is easy to follow.

Positive Message: Communicate in a friendly manner. Some off the shelf signs could induce stress. Carefully consider the wording, colour palette and typography as all of this can alter the tone and readability.

Reflect the Identity of the Place: The number and appearance of the signage needs to be adaptable upon location. For example, the signage for a heritage location may require a different feel to that in a modern business or residential district. Consider an appropriate balance between increasing safe space for physical distancing and also retaining (or ideally raising) place quality.

Signage for all – Careful consideration to colour palette, font and size to ensure the signage can communicate as effectively as possible to all user groups. Contrast between lettering and background is essential.

Potential Signage Content


Note: All signage to use the term physical distance where appropriate and not refer to the 2 metre distance.

  • Welcome Back! We’re open for business
  • COVID-19 – Please maintain physical distance
  • COVID-19 – Thank you for practicing physical distancing
  • COVID-19 – Please respect local communities and those who may be at higher risk
  • COVID-19 – Please follow the one way system
  • COVID-19 – Please keep your distance


Positive messages. Source: Atkins                                                    A coordinated signage strategy. Source: Atkins

Siting Considerations for Signage


  • Existing posts, columns and structures should be used wherever possible.
  • Where signs facing moving traffic are erected above footways, or in areas likely or intended to be used by pedestrians, a headroom of 2300 mm is recommended, with 2100 mm as an absolute minimum. A clearance of at least 2400 mm should be maintained over a cycle track or a shared cycling and walking facility.
  • Where posts are erected on footways, there should be a preferred minimum of 1500 mm and an absolute minimum of 1000 mm of unobstructed width to allow the passage of wheelchairs, double buggies etc.


  Source: Atkins

Examples


Green = Short-term (immediate)
Purple = Medium-term  (6 – 18 months)
Orange = Long-term (18+ months)

Signage Type - ImageTimeframeAdvantagesDisadvantages
Floor Signage

  • Clear message

  • Readily Available

  • Adaptable - can be used as a reminder to physical-distance or as a queuing marker

  • Easy to remove

  • Adaptable to tie in with an overall signage strategy

  • Easily replace/removed if required


  • May become worn quickly

  • More difficult to apply to certain surfaces e.g. cobblestones.

Floor Stenciling

  • Fast installation

  • High impact clear message


  • Not part of a refined, coordinated strategy

  • Could be difficult to remove and would not be a preferred solution on high quality paving materials


Pedestrian and Cyclist Temporary Signage

  • Clear message

  • Many of these signs are already in place across our towns and cities to provide the necessary information

  • Readily available and can be installed quickly


  • Can appear quite intimidating

  • Often contribute to street clutter and take up space on the footway

  • Not part of overall signage strategy

  • May not be best placed in a heritage context long-term

Bus Stop Signage

  • Clear focused message targeted at a specific location and activity

  • Easy availability/printing that can be updated as required over time

  • Can be installed onto existing street furniture (bus shelters)

  • Potential to tie in to wider signage strategy

  • Easy to remove


  • May not be readable unless you are close to the sign

  • Easier to apply where bus shelters are present

Monolith Signage

  • Utilises existing signage opportunities either through new printed or digital displays

  • Potential to tie in to a wider signage strategy

  • Relatively easy to change the information that is displayed

  • Easy to remove


  • Locations are not flexible so may not be best placed

Banners Mounted on Lighting Columns

  • Utilises existing street furniture with new printed banners

  • Does not contribute to additional street clutter

  • Can be changed over time if required

  • Potential to tie in to a wider signage strategy

  • Relatively easy to remove


  • Not all towns have this existing signage opportunity

Bespoke Banners

  • Can incorporate into a wider signage strategy

  • Bespoke to the place

  • Large, clear message opportunity

  • Can be incorporated with new barriers or existing infrastructure for display

  • Easy to remove


  • Location needs to be carefully selected for large signs

  • Obstructs clear views through a space

Utilising Building Frontages

  • Utilises building frontages and blank facades to display signage and therefore not contributing to additional street clutter

  • Can be changed over time if required

  • Potential to tie in to a wider signage strategy

  • Easy to remove


  • Permissions required

  • Blank building facades are a good location for signage but needs to be an appropriate siting for the sign

Bollards incorporating signage

  • Combines street furniture and signage

  • Potential to tie in to overall signage strategy

  • More discreet signage opportunity

  • Neat, compact solution

  • Potential to tie in to overall signage strategy


  • Difficult to remove

  • Careful consideration needs to be given to siting and avoidance of unnecessary additional bollards.

Motion activated audio signage

  • When motion activated, an audio message is played

  • Provides an opportunity to use another method of communication

  • Extends to some wider user groups

  • Neat solution reducing street clutter strong metal casing and secure steel post fixing system

  • Easy to change the audio message

  • Messages bespoke to the place is easy to achieve

  • Solar technology means no power source is required

  • Innovative solution for the communication of public safety messages


  • Potentially could be quite repetitive and anyone working outdoors would hear messages repeatedly

  • If broken for any reason no message is visible. Would need to be in addition to more conventional signage

1.2 Managing Pedestrian Flows

Queuing And Pedestrian Flows in High Streets


  • Access to entry and exit routes at shops, public transport interchanges and public buildings should be maximised and clearly marked to reduce queues. Pedestrian ‘pinch points’ should be minimised by removing obstacles in the footway and pedestrian barriers.
  • Queuing and waiting areas should be defined using temporary signage and barriers plus use of marshals provided by the facility as appropriate. Extra space should be allowed where multiple queues may meet.
  • “This area is now full. Please check back later.” signs could be provided at popular destinations, when capacity reached. Opening times could be staggered for popular destinations.
  • Bus stops should be moved to areas which can accommodate queuing in line with physical distancing requirements.

Note: Responsibility for the management of queues outside shops, stations, bus stops and other businesses will likely rest with the operator.

Example Layout – Queue Zones and Pedestrian Movement

Allocation of queuing and movement space on a footway with phased office and retail opening
times. Source: Atkins

Key considerations

  • Markings and easily moved objects may not always result in consistent physical distancing.
  • Features that form barriers may prevent pedestrians moving into other areas to maintain physical distancing. The placement of and signs and location of queuing zones should allow other footway users space to pass safely.
  • Where possible signage should be attached to existing street furniture or building frontages.

Queuing and Pedestrian flows for residential areas


  • Many of the above high street measures could be considered at a smaller scale at local shops.
  • Enough space for physical distancing should be indicated at bus stops and crossing points.
  • Space for higher numbers of family groups and pushchairs should be allowed for at busy locations.
  • Access to entry and exit routes at schools and public buildings should be maximised with clearly marked separate entry and exit routes.

   
View of the Royal Mile in Edinburgh. May 2019 (left) and May 2020 (right). Source: Atkins

Additional considerations for Heritage Areas


  • Temporary measures in designated heritage areas should be reversible and avoid permanent change or damage to the valued qualities of the physical environment.
  • Any semi-permanent (1 year +) or permanent changes such as fixed street furniture, or placement of long term signage should comply with local planning and heritage designations, be of materials/ appearance appropriate to the heritage setting.

Examples


Signage

Signage and communications to remind pedestrians of distance requirements. This could include:

  • Crossing points and intersections
  • Entrances and exits
  • Bus stops and public transport interchanges

Markings to indicate physical distancing and queuing areas

These should be along the building frontage or within safe spaces where no footway obstruction is caused.

Mobility Impairment Considerations


Security considerations, and the impact of measures on people with disabilities and other groups, should be considered when designing temporary facilities.

This includes access for blue badge holders and may call for a balanced approach.

For pedestrian movement, these considerations might include the following:

  • Seating for elderly in waiting areas
  • Clearly marked ramps should be provided where levels change
    such as where pedestrian zones are extended into parking or carriageway areas
  • Pedestrian surfaces including temporary areas should be safe and even to walk on avoiding trip hazards and rough ground
  • Physical distancing measures should not create obstacles or hazards for visually impaired users
  • Marshals provided by shops or facilities could prioritise disabled or other vulnerable groups in queues

Road safety considerations


  • Route continuity: continuous routes should be provided to reduce the risk of injury to pedestrians having to negotiate breaks in the route.
  • Pedestrian awareness: Where pedestrian lanes are provided, the lane closest to the traffic lane should face the direction of oncoming traffic.
  • Expected flows: Where pedestrian flows are expected to be high, signs and road markings should be used to encourage pedestrians to keep to one side of the footway to improve movement.
  • Visually impaired pedestrians: Signs should utilise contrasting colours.
  • Road markings: where priority is given to pedestrians over vehicles, this should be made clear with the appropriate road markings.

   

1.3 Public Transport Interaction

Bus stop realignment


High Streets

  • Extra space should be provided for boarding and queuing at bus or tram stops in busy shopping streets or where this is not possible should be moved to areas which can accommodate queuing in line with physical distancing requirements.
  • Queuing areas should be defined at busy interchanges allowing sufficient footway space for pedestrians to pass safely.

Residential Streets

  • Busy bus stops next to schools, or local shops or facilities may require additional space in line with measures described for high streets.
  • Information on physical distancing should be indicated at bus stops.

Replacement / temporary bus boarder kerbs

  • Where temporary bus boarder kerbs are required or need to be temporarily extended to allow additional space for physical distancing.
  • Ensure level changes and ramps are clearly marked.

Signage of bus gates


A bus gate is a mechanism that gives buses priority over other traffic. This can be a physical barrier such as collapsible bollards or temporary barriers, signage, traffic lights or virtual mechanisms that are activated by bus proximity.

Mobility impairment considerations


  • Access across cycle lanes and tracks to reach a bus should be avoided but where this is not possible, consideration should be given to clearly highlighted areas for boarding and alighting buses which could
  •  include informal zebra crossings of the cycle lane or track. Temporary (stick on) markings for informal zebra crossings could provide a temporary solution that is easily reversible.
  • Any ramps or level changes associated with temporary bus boarders or extensions to existing bus boarders should be clearly marked.
  • Signs and markings setting out waiting zones should be clear and of appropriate colour and contrast to be easily read.
  • Posts, signs and bollards should not obstruct disabled access to board or alight the bus.
  • Bus operator ramp equipment (on vehicle) needs should be considered in the design process and liaison carried out with bus operators on this.

   

Road Safety Considerations


Pinch points at redundant bus stops creating an obstruction in pedestrian routes

Street furniture associated with bus stops which are temporarily relocated increase the risk of personal injury incidents. Consideration should be given to the reallocation of carriageway space at these sites to allow a safe route for pedestrians around the street furniture.

Temporary facilities for mobility impaired pedestrians at temporary bus stops

Temporary ramps for access to and from buses do exist, but their placement will be key to safe operation for users. Where cycle lanes or cycle tracks are provided between the existing footway and carriageway, a ramp structure is likely to block access for pedestrians and cyclists. Similarly, a ramp structure may present a hazard to vehicle occupants if struck from the carriageway.

Cycling Routes


This section has been designed to provide a comprehensive overview of temporary infrastructure interventions as they relate to cycling. Reviewed August 17th

                               

2. Cycling Routes

2.1 General Information

Overview


As towns and cities re-open, appropriate access for cyclists will be key in maintaining movement, easing pressure on public transport services and facilitating physical distancing.

This is likely to include some of the following measures:

  • Temporary cycle lanes and tracks
  • Modal filter road closures
  • Reallocation of carriageway space
  • One-way localised traffic management
  • Contraflow cycling routes
  • Quiet street improvements
  • Reduced speed limits
  • City-wide traffic management solutions
  • Increased use of bus lanes for cyclists (where feasible)
  • Increased levels of cycle parking – both temporary and more permanent options
  • Increased cycle hire scheme provision

These options could be implemented as short, medium or long term measures as needed.

2.2 Temporary Cycle Lanes (One-way Travel)

Physical Distancing Principles


It is expected that temporary cycle lanes would not be subject to strict physical distancing rules as this would likely prohibit their implementation and therefore have a wider impact on movement across towns and cities. Cyclists overtaking one another or passing other cyclists are likely to be momentary instances and so providing full physical distancing along entire route lengths could prove unfeasible.

Temporary cycle lanes should be as wide as possible, but it is noted that narrower than usual lane widths (of around 1.5m for one-way travel) might be necessary in order to implement schemes.

Note: Where cycle lanes are used, the 1.5m should be the minimum absolute width to any separation feature (i.e. the separation feature should not be placed within the  overall 1.5m width)

Potential Options

  • Create new wide cycle lanes in existing carriageway space by removing traffic lanes.
  • Widen existing cycle lanes.
  • Bus lane times of operation could be amended to provide additional space for cyclists.

Key Considerations

  • Cycle lane provision should be considered in the context of local speed limits, with additional spatial allowances made as necessary to reflect prevailing speeds and traffic conditions.
  • Treatment at side roads and junctions needs to consider the needs of all road users and be unambiguous.
  • Existing carriageway surface quality will need to be considered (items such as potholes), as different surfacing types.
  • Loading and parking areas for shops and businesses could create conflict for cyclists.
  • Crossing points for pedestrians and for bus stops.
  • Use of ramps to facilitate pedestrian crossing of cycle tracks/lanes.
  • Road gradients should be considered as lanes along lower gradient routes are likely to be more attractive to users and higher gradients will result in higher cyclist speeds, increasing the potential for conflict.
  • Cycle lanes are generally expected to be one-way as two-way cycle traffic using temporary cycle lanes could create significant conflict at junctions.

Typical Cross Section Arrangements


Footway – Cycle Lane – Carriageway                                                         Footway – On Street Parking (Open) – Cycle Lane – Carriageway

   

Cycle Lane – Carriageway                                                                                   Footway – On Street Parking (Closed) – Cycle Lane – Carriageway

                                       

Reduced Carriageway Lane Widths

  • Where cycle lanes are provided by expansion into existing carriageways, the resultant reduced carriageway lane widths should be considered in terms of the prevailing traffic speeds, volumes and vehicle types.  Narrowing carriageways is likely to be necessary to implement temporary cycle lanes.
  • Where buses will be using the reduced carriageway width, the designer should consider the needs of two buses passing each other, which is likely to require a minimum of 6.5m  carriageway width – which may also require reduced speed limits to enable this.

Footway – Cycle LaneLoading (or Parking) Bay – Carriageway                            Footway – With Flow Bus Lane – Carriageway

     

Footway – Cycle lane – Bus Lane – Carriageway                                                One Way Cycle Tracks (at footway level)

 

Typical Cross Section Arrangements – Examples


Carriageway converted into temporary cycle lane – Glasgow                                           Closed parking bays alongside temporary cycle lane – Glasgow
   

Carriageway converted to temporary cycle lane – Glasgow                                                Bus lane converted to temporary cycle lane – Leicester
   

Cross Section Notes


  • The cross sections are indicative and are intended for roads of speed ≤ 30mph. For higher speed roads, additional separation distances  and features should be considered.
  • Where minimum widths are stated, this should not be the target. Cycle lane widths should be as wide as possible to improve the user experience.
  • Wider cycle lanes help facilitate overtaking opportunities which allow for physical distancing. Where this is not possible, signage to discourage cyclist overtaking could be used.
  • Separation features will likely vary depending on the various other needs of the local area.

Note: the examples below show ideas only. Please see Signage section of this guide for advice on placement of signs and sign types

                     
Signage prohibiting vehicles from overtaking                 Signage example promoting physical distancing via single                    International signage example

cyclists through a narrow lane                                        file travel through a narrow shared path                                               prohibiting cyclists from overtaking

  • Subject to the characteristics of the parking bays, it may be possible to use the space as part of the temporary cycle lane or to provide space for positioning of signage and/or temporary cycle parking.
  • Where they are to remain open, appropriate ‘buffer’ space should be considered to avoid encroachment of parked vehicles into cycle lanes and opening of vehicle doors.
  • Careful consideration is also required to maintain provision of parking for mobility impaired users, including separation distances required for access to and from vehicles.
  • Reducing the speed limit can provide a more attractive and safer environment for cycling and could be a possible measure to supplement temporary infrastructure.

Key Considerations

  • Temporary TRO required to introduce new speed limits.
  • Reduced speed limits could be extended permanently.

Separation Features


Separation features improve the level of service afforded to users by increasing the perception of safety and helping avoid conflict.

These include features both within and between user groups.

Options for cycle lanes may include markings, lines, moveable infrastructure (e.g. cones) and physical infrastructure.

Cycle Lane Separators                                                                                                         Temporary Lines, Berlin
     
Cycle Lane Defenders                                                                                                           Lining and Cones, Glasgow
     

Key Considerations

Temporary ramps for access to and from buses do exist, but their placement will be key to safe operation for users. Where cycle lanes or cycle tracks are provided between the existing footway and carriageway, a ramp structure is likely to block access for pedestrians and cyclists. Similarly, a ramp structure may present a hazard to vehicle occupants if struck from the carriageway.

  • Markings and easily moved objects such as cones are likely to be subject to misuse.
  • Continuous separation removes possibility for users to extend into other areas to maintain social distancing and could also restrict permeability in some cases.
  • Length of time segregation will be in place (e.g. short-term, medium term, long term).
  • Procurement, installation, and maintenance.
  • Conservation area considerations.
  • Some separation features may have an adverse on other road users such as motorcyclists.

Separation Materials


Green = Short-term – Immediate

Purple = Medium-term – 6 to 18m

Orange = Long term – +18m

NameUseKey PointsExample



Flexi Cylinder Self Righting Delineator
Post and Temporary Lines


  • Easy installation

  • Low Cost

  • Maintenance implications - Potential to be dislodged

  • May offer less in terms of safety perception

  • May not be appropriate for heritage areas




Cycle Lane Defenders

  • Robust

  • Drainage gaps required

  • Higher cost



Satellite Islands

  • Robust

  • Drainage gaps required

  • Potentially onerous spatial requirements (600mm wide)

  • Heritage finish available

  • Higher cost


Lane Separators

  • Robust

  • Drainage gaps required

  • Heritage finish available

  • Higher cost

Transitions


Occasionally it will be necessary to provide a transition from on-carriageway cycle lanes to off-carriageway cycle tracks, or to re-merge cycle lanes with carriageway space. Transitions should be clear, smooth, safe and comfortable for cyclists. Minimum speed change and vertical and/or horizontal deflection for cyclists should be the objective.


Typical layout for cycle lane (carriageway level) transitioning to cycle track (footway level)


Typical layout for cycle track (footway level) transitioning to cycle lane (carriageway level)

  • Where a cycle track re-joins the carriageway, a cycle route transition should be provided which is smooth and gradual. In a temporary layout, this may include a temporary ramp structure.
  • Cycle symbol markings and advisory/mandatory lane markings may be useful to highlight the presence of cyclists where a cycle lane re-merges with traffic on the carriageway.
  • The transition section should ideally run parallel to the carriageway. Cyclists should not be required to look behind themselves at difficult angles in order to re-enter the carriageway.
  • Transitions from cycle lanes back to carriageway should not be close to road junctions as this may introduce additional conflicts.
  • Signage may be useful to heighten awareness to other road users at merges and transitions but may require approval on a scheme by scheme basis where the content is not currently prescribed.


 Examples of signage to heighten driver awareness at transitions and merge points

Note: Whilst desirable, it may not be achievable to provide coloured surfacing or tactile paving within a temporary layout.

2.3 Temporary Cycle Tracks (Two-way Travel)

Cycle Track Options


A cycle track may be either:

  • Cycle track at carriageway level – at the same level as motor traffic but separated by physical means (i.e. kerbing).
  • Stepped cycle track – adjacent to the carriageway and separated vertically from both the road carriageway and the footway.
  • Cycle track at footway level – adjacent to the road carriageway and separated vertically from the road carriageway.
  • Cycle track away from the road.

Each gives an increasing level of protection from motor traffic and comfort for cycle users.

In some cases, existing cycle tracks may need to be closed to provide additional footway space, meaning the cycle track route needs to be re-provided as a cycle lane on the carriageway.


Cycle Track at Footway Level

Key considerations

  • Treatment at side roads and junctions needs to consider the needs of all road users and be unambiguous.
  • Cycle track provision should be considered in the context of local speed limits, with additional spatial allowances made as necessary to reflect prevailing speeds and traffic conditions.
  • Existing carriageway surface quality will need to be considered (items such as potholes), as well as different surfacing types and drainage implications.
  • Loading and parking areas for shops and businesses could create conflict for cyclists.
  • Crossings for pedestrians and for bus stops may require temporary markings (e.g. informal zebra markings).
  • Use of ramps to facilitate pedestrian crossing of cycle tracks may impede one direction of travel more than the other.
  • Potential for conflict with other users where two-way traffic is carried through a priority junction. This is particularly relevant on downhill gradients where cyclists may be approaching junctions at speed from a direction that drivers are not expecting.
  • Two-way cycle tracks will need some form of segregation feature along the centre such as lines/markings.

Cross Sections


It is expected that temporary cycle tracks would not be subject to strict physical distancing rules as this could prohibit their implementation.

Cyclists overtaking one another or passing other cyclists are likely to be momentary instances and so providing full physical distancing along entire route lengths could prove unfeasible.

Temporary cycle tracks should be as wide as possible, but it is noted that minimum widths of around 3m for two-way travel might be necessary in order to implement schemes.

Note: Where cycle tracks are used, the 3m should be the minimum width to any separation feature (i.e. the separation feature should not be placed within the 3m width).

Typical Cross Section Arrangements


Two-way cycle track at footway level


One-way stepped cycle track at footway level

 


Two-way cycle tack at carriageway level

Reduced Carriageway Lane Widths

  • Where cycle tracks are provided by expansion into existing carriageways, the resultant reduced carriageway lane widths should be considered in terms of the prevailing traffic speeds, volumes and vehicle types.  Narrowing carriageways is likely to be necessary to implement temporary cycle tracks.
  • Where buses will using be the reduced carriageway width, the designer should consider the needs of two buses passing each other, which is likely to require a minimum of 6.5m carriageway width – which may also require reduced speed limits to enable this.

Separation distances and effective width


Where street furniture and other fixed objects are in place, it is desirable to design additional clearance for the comfort and safety of users.

Note: Clearances below are to be treated as advisory in temporary situations.

ObjectMin Clearance (m)
Low Upstand ≤ 50mmNil
Kerb Height 50mm to 150mm0.2m
Continuous feature of height <1.2m or
an isolated feature of any height (e.g.
sign post, cabinet, lighting column)
0.25m
Continuous feature of height >1.2m or
a bridge parapet of any height 
0.5m
Carriageway0.5*

*For roads with a speed limit in excess of 40mph the desirable minimum clearance between a carriageway and cycle track will be greater.

Separation features – Examples


NameKey PointsExample
Flexible Kerbing Systems

  • Bolt down product requiring no excavation

  • Lightweight

  • Can be fixed to tarmac or concrete surfaces

  • Can be made from recycled materials
Pre-cast Concrete Kerbing Systems

  • Stick down product requiring no excavation

  • Temporary or permanent fixture (note - can be difficult to remove at a later date)

  • Bespoke kerb types available for  schemes i.e. surface treated in factory

Key Considerations

  • Length of time segregation will be in place (e.g. short-term, medium term, long term).
  • Procurement, installation, and maintenance cost.
  • Conservation area considerations.
  • Impact on services and street furniture.
  • Temporary or Permanent – ability to be removed easily.

Transitions


Occasionally it will be necessary to provide a transition from a cycle track to a cycle lane, or to re-merge cycle tracks with carriageway traffic such as in quiet street environments.

Transitions should be clear, smooth, safe and comfortable for cyclists. Minimum speed change and vertical and/or horizontal deflection for cyclists should be the objective.


Examples of signage to heighten driver awareness of cyclists at transitions and merges

  • Where a cycle track re-joins the carriageway, a cycle route transition should be provided which is smooth and gradual. In a temporary layout, this may include the use of a ramp structure.
  • The resultant feature may take the form of a temporary cycle lane or quiet streets arrangement without formal separation, if appropriate.
  • Cycle symbol markings and advisory/mandatory lane markings may be useful to highlight the presence of cyclists.
  • Transition sections should ideally run parallel to the carriageway. Cyclists should not be required to look behind themselves at difficult angles in order to re-enter the carriageway.
  • Signage can be used to heighten awareness of the facility to other road users at merges and transitions but will likely require approval on a scheme by scheme basis where not already prescribed.


Transition from cycle track (footway level) ramped to cycle lane (carriageway level)

Note: Whilst desirable, it may not be achievable to provide coloured surfacing or tactile paving within a temporary layout.

2.4 Cycling on Quiet Streets

With vehicular traffic


For streets of appropriate character, and where traffic speeds/ volumes are low, it may be possible to improve access for cyclists with relatively ‘light touch’ interventions.

Typically this will allow cyclists to share the carriageway space with vehicular traffic, without the need for separation features.

Options may include:

  • Applying temporary road markings to heighten awareness of cyclists.
  • Reducing existing speed limits.
  • Temporary signage.
  • Control traffic types and volumes, as well as direction of travel.
  • Allowing cyclist contraflows on one-way streets to increase permeability.


Cycling on a quiet street – Cardiff

Benefits of cycling on quiet streets include:

  • The directness and coherence of cycle journeys can be improved.
  • The visibility of cyclists, particularly at junctions can be improved.
  • Conflict with pedestrians can be reduced.
  • Traffic volume and speed control has wider benefits – for pedestrians, for example.

Key Considerations

  • Where existing streets are deemed to be suitable, the designer should still seek to consider whether changes can be made to the volume, speed and composition of traffic to improve cycling conditions.
  • Where on-street parking may cause difficulties for cyclists, its removal should be considered.
  • Integration with existing and/or proposed cycling routes should be considered to ensure onward connectivity.
  • One-way vehicle flow along streets is particularly attractive for cyclists. However, it may be necessary for a one-way street TRO to include an exemption for cyclists to facilitate permeability and avoid moving a conflict point elsewhere.

Without vehicular traffic


For streets of appropriate character, and where traffic volumes are low, it may be possible to restrict vehicular access (temporarily or permanently) to reallocate the entire carriageway space for cyclists and pedestrians.

   
Before (left) and after (right) a street was reallocated to pedestrians and cyclists only – Kelvin Way, Glasgow

Key Considerations

  • Where streets are deemed to be suitable, the designer should still seek to consider the impact of any temporary or permanent restrictions on vehicular traffic on the surrounding road network.
  • Potential hazards resulting from interaction of cyclists and pedestrians within a shared carriageway – segregation of pedestrians and cyclists should be considered, and footway provision maintained where possible.
  • Integration with existing and/or proposed cycling routes should be considered to ensure onward connectivity.
  • Where vehicular access needs to be maintained for local residents and/or bus services, a ‘cycle street’ approach may be suitable, whereby interventions may be provided to indicate cyclist priority over vehicular traffic.

2.5 Junction Treatments

A limited case history


There is little evidence currently available regarding best practice for temporary junction treatment measures. Ultimately the optimum solution at junctions will likely be dependent upon the characteristics of the local environment, as well as the ambitions for the temporary measures implemented (i.e. period of implementation, volume of users etc.).

Therefore, where appropriate the designer should refer to existing design guidance for the development of permanent cycling infrastructure and temporary traffic management to inform their scheme design at junctions.

Key Considerations

  • Cycle lanes at priority junctions will not be able to have separation features across the minor arm if the junction operation is to be maintained.
  • Cyclist priority at junctions will need to be decided upon and maintained consistently throughout a route and/or city-wide area.
  • If raised temporary structures are used at junctions (e.g. across a side/minor road), this will have wider implications for other traffic and the product used should be robust enough to withstand vehicular traffic.
  • Access for mobility and visually impaired users at or near crossings at junctions will need to be considered form the outset to avoid conflict.
  • Treatment of junctions to accommodate two-way cycle tracks is more challenging as other road users may not anticipate cyclist travelling in both directions at the junction.
  • Layouts that place the cyclist within a vehicle driver’s normal field of vision are less hazardous than those that place the cyclist out with the driver’s field of vision.


Example of a cycle lane at a simple priority junction – Taunton

Key design principles for safety at junctions

  • Low speeds
  • Good intervisibility
  • Single lane approaches (where possible)
  • Designs that facilitate correct positioning and offer protection from turning vehicles

Simple priority junctions – Cycle lanes


Cyclists on the major arm of the junciton should have priority over side road traffic. Where a temporary cycle lane (with or without separation features) is provided, this should be continued across the side road arm as an advisory cycle lane.

Key Considerations

  • Where separation features are used on cycle lanes, these will need to be discontinued at junctions to enable vehicular movements. A distance of around 5 metres either side of the junction is likely to be appropriate (see guidance relating to permanent facilities).
  • A consistent approach to cyclist priority along a specified route is key to providing a familiar and comfortable facility for cyclists.
  • Raised tables may need to be temporary structures but these would need to be robust enough to withstand vehicular traffic where junction operations are to be maintained.
  • Coloured surfacing and prominent cycle symbol markings can be useful in emphasising the presence of the cycle lane and priority of cyclists at the junction. If required, cycle symbol markings may be turned 90° to face side road entry traffic. Provision of coloured surfacing may not be achievable as part of a temporary intervention.


Typical layout for cycle lane at a simple priority junction

Simple priority junctions – Cycle tracks


Where a temporary cycle track is provided a decision is required as to whether cyclists on the cycle track or drivers on the side road have priority and this should be consistent along the whole route or across a city-wide context. A site-specific assessment should be made based on the needs of all road users at the junction.

Key Considerations

  • A consistent approach to cyclist priority is key to providing a familiar and comfortable facility for cyclists.
  • Raised tables may need to be temporary structures but these would need to be robust enough to withstand vehicular traffic where junction operations are maintained.
  • Coloured surfacing, signage and prominent cycle symbol markings can be useful in emphasising the presence of the cycle track and priority of cyclists at the junction. Provision of coloured surfacing may not be achievable as part of a temporary intervention.
  • For cycle track crossings, if cyclist priority is maintained, a sufficient offset should be provided to allow for the storage of vehicles turning into the side road (see relevant permanent facility guidance).
  • Differential coloured surfacing may help to highlight the approach to a crossing.


Typical layout for cycle track with priority at a simple priority junction

Simple priority junctions – Blended side road entry treatments


Blended side road entry treatments slow motor vehicles as they manoeuvre at a junction, as the continuous footway indicates to drivers pedestrians have priority and that they should to give way to pedestrians using the footway, making it easier and more convenient for pedestrians to cross the side road.

In a temporary setting, blended side road entry layouts may be created using temporary ramp facilities.

Notes

  • Such layouts can provide safety benefits to cyclists, helping to prevent collisions with motor vehicles turning into and out of the side road.
  • Ramped surfaces should be flush with the footway and clearly indicate priority of pedestrians.
  • Temporary ramps should not be so steep as to create a hazard for cyclists turning into and out of the side road.
  • Installation of temporary ramps should allow continuation of drainage flows along kerbs to avoid ponding or debris build up.


Cycle lane at priority junction with continuous footway (left). Cycle track at priority junction with continuous footway (right).

Examples of cycle Lanes at simple priority junctions



 Two-way cycle track crossing simple priority junction – Belfast                          Two-way cycle track approaching simple priority junction – Brussels

Note: Physical separation feature terminated before junction

Facilities at signal-controlled junctions


Where a temporary cycle lane or track meets a signal-controlled junction, it is important to provide clear layouts for both cyclists and drivers of vehicles. Key points to consider:

  • Where separation features are used on temporary cycle lanes, these should be discontinued in advance of junctions to enable vehicular movements such as left turns.
  • Cycling-friendly traffic signal phases with separate, exclusive green phases for cyclists.
  • Temporary markings to highlight advanced stop lines (ASLs) ahead of traffic. These should be deep enough to avoid cyclists feeling intimidated by traffic behind.
  • Signal timings at crossings could be extended, and/or phase frequency increased, to provide additional crossing time for pedestrians and reduce build-up of groups waiting to cross.
  • Temporary left turn filters for cyclists (or prohibited left turns for vehicles) to avoid conflict with left-turning vehicles.
  • Temporary cycle bypass at signals.


Typical layout for cycle lanes at a signalised junction

 

Note: Provision of coloured surfacing may not be achievable as part of a temporary intervention.

Signal-controlled junction – temporary cycle bypass


Where space and level of pedestrian use allow, it could be beneficial to cyclists to provide a temporary slip off in advance of a signal-controlled junction, leading to a short section of cycle track that enables the cyclist to bypass the red signal. This may be used to assist cyclists either to turn left or to continue straight ahead through a signal-controlled junction.


Typical layout for temporary cycle bypasses at a signal-controlled junction

Note: tactile paving and signals omitted for clarity

Benefits

  • Helps protect cyclists at busier junctions, increasing the perception of user safety and reducing conflict points.
  • Reduces delays to cyclists.
  • Enables cyclists to maintain momentum, thereby improving levels comfort.
  • Could increase permeability for cyclists.

Key Considerations

  • Bypasses should ideally be built within the carriageway so as not to impact on pedestrian flows and to avoid vertical deflection.
  • Signal phases may be integrated for cycle bypasses to give early starts, or separate cycle phases. They should link into a cycle lane or cycle track, or merge into general traffic with appropriate transition features.
  • Consideration is required at pedestrian crossing locations, especially for mobility impaired users where such layouts may be unfamiliar.
  • Temporary separation features (e.g. bollards, cones or road markings) offer potential options to create temporary cycle bypass within an existing junction layout. The appropriate intervention should be assessed on a site-by-site basis.

Signal-controlled junction – Temporary cycle lanes


A temporary cycle lane marked through a signal-controlled junction provides a visible indication of route continuity and increases drivers’ awareness of key cycle movements, which is likely to be useful in temporary situations where the road layout has changed substantially for drivers, pedestrians and cyclists.

Key Considerations

  • Where cyclists have several cross-cutting desire lines through a junction, such as right turn movements attempting to mark these may be confusing and counter-productive.
  • Temporary route markings through junctions will likely be subject to high levels of wear and will need to be of a suitable specification to avoid slippery conditions for cyclists and motorcyclists.
  • Consider use of coloured surfacing to raise driver awareness.

Benefits

  • Help to guide cyclists and increase the perception of user safety.
  • Raises awareness to drivers that a junction forms part of a cycle route and that cyclists can be expected.
  • Could be particularly beneficial for larger and  more complex junctions.


Typical layout for temporary cycle lanes at a signal-controlled junction

Signal-controlled junction – protected junctions


A protected junction arrangement allows cyclists to undertake movements at a signal-controlled junction within their own lane, protected from motor vehicles.

Cyclist movements through the junction could potentially be co-ordinated with the pedestrian crossing phase, allowing pedestrians and cyclists to move in parallel but without integrating.

Separation features could take many forms depending on the local context and heritage considerations.

Key Considerations

  • Temporary separation features (e.g. bollards, cones or road markings) offer potential options to create a temporary protected junction within an existing junction layout. The appropriate intervention should be assessed on a site-by-site basis.
  • Use of temporary planters (or similar – refer to Traffic Management guidance) on approach can aid in reinforcing the designated space within the layout for cyclists. Location of such features should be considered to avoid impact of intervisibility between users at the junction.
  • Consideration is required at pedestrian crossing locations, especially for mobility impaired users where such layouts may be unfamiliar.


Typical indicative layout for temporary protected cycle lanes at a signal-controlled junction

Examples of Temporary Facilities at Signal-Controlled Junctions


 


Temporary cycle lane at a signal-controlled junction with advanced stop line – UK

Note: Left turns have been prohibited except for buses and cyclists to avoid conflict.


Temporary signals installed for two-way cycle traffic – UK

Note: Other road users may not be anticipating bi-directional travel. Temporary signals for cyclists, phased with existing signals, may help to avoid conflict.

Temporary facilities at roundabout junctions


The manner in which cyclists are accommodated at roundabouts will depend on a number of factors relating to layout and the volume and composition of traffic. Roundabouts vary in scale from simple mini roundabouts to large roundabouts catering for complex traffic patterns.

When entering and circulating on a roundabout, cyclists should be given the opportunity to positions themselves such that they are visible to drivers.

Cyclists will generally feel and be safer on roundabouts where:

  • Approach arm traffic speeds are low.
  • Circulatory carriageway speeds are low.
  • Cyclists are positioned prominently.

Potential Options

  • For large roundabouts, temporary hatch markings could be provided to narrow the circulatory carriageway to a single lane.
  • At signal-controlled roundabouts, cycle-friendly signaling phases with separate, exclusive green phases for cyclists.
  • At normal roundabouts, the use of temporary hatch markings to reduce junction flaring on approach to reduce vehicular approach speeds.

Key Considerations

  • A consistent approach to cyclist priority is key to providing a familiar and comfortable facility for cyclists.
  • Where separation features are used on temporary cycle lanes, these will need to be discontinued on approach to roundabouts in order to allow cyclists to integrate with motor traffic and take up a prominent position at the entry.
  • Temporary cycle lanes on the perimeter of the circulatory carriageway of a roundabout should be avoided as they place cyclist on the nearside of the roundabout in a non-prominent and vulnerable position.
  • Alternative off-carriageway solutions may be preferred to on-carriageway. Where provided, off-carriageway interventions should be direct, safe and attractive to use.

2.6 Parking, Loading and Taxi Ranks

Loading and parking bays


As businesses begin to re-open, loading bays will be key to replenishing stocks. Some loading bays may have already been used for alternative purposes such as temporary cycle lanes, tracks or widened footways and alternative loading arrangements may need to be sought.

Where cycling routes are implemented on streets containing loading bays, consideration should be given to:

  • Alternative loading locations
  • Routes between businesses and alternative loading locations – are the routes suitable for transporting goods by trolley etc?
  • New informal loading bays on main streets
  • Gaps in cycle lanes and cycle tracks to allow goods to be delivered to businesses
  • The option of identifying specific delivery times off-peak for goods deliveries

Provision of a temporary cycle lane to the offside of parking or loading bays may result in the need for the closure of the bays to avoid conflicts between cyclists and drivers of vehicles, particularly where higher cyclist flows are expected.

Where bays are retained, the operation of parking bays, loading bays (and taxi ranks) needs careful consideration to ensure a rationalised and safe flow of vehicles to/from these areas. This should include consideration of separation distances to reflect delivery requirements and /or access across cycle tracks with goods.


Typical layout example of parking (or loading) bays maintained adjacent (offside) to cycle lane (left). Typical layout example of parking (or loading) bays
maintained adjacent (nearside) to cycle lane where bays may be closed or remain open depending on the local context (right)

Where bays are retained, the operation of parking bays, loading bays (and taxi ranks) needs careful consideration to ensure a rationalised and safe flow of vehicles to/from these areas. This should include consideration of separation distances to reflect delivery requirements and /or access across cycle tracks with goods.


Example of layout to accommodate loading alongside cycle lane – Milan

2.7 Speed Management

Overview


Creating suitable and comfortable conditions for cyclists on the carriageway is a key element of encouraging cycle use, particularly in urban areas. For temporary solutions a principal consideration of the designer when considering implementation of cyclist facilities is the prevailing traffic speeds, and whether changes can be made to reduce speeds where necessary. The guidance detailed here is intended for roads of speed ≤30mph . Therefore, where appropriate/achievable consideration should be given to reducing speed limits to ≤30mph to augment any
intervention measures. This will likely be most achievable within urban settings.

In rural settings (or urban settings where traffic speeds cannot reasonably be reduced ≤ 30mph) the appropriateness of providing temporary cyclist facilities should be examined to understand if they could be deemed counterproductive to the ambition of the scheme i.e. consideration may conclude that interventions may result in a decrease in comfort and safety for cyclists where interventions ar e provided on
a high speed route. In these scenarios alternative proposals should be considered.

For temporary cycle routes which propose cyclists integrating with motorised traffic, the carriageway lane widths (including shared bus lanes) should be sufficiently wide to ensure safe separation distances can be observed by drivers passing slower moving cycle traffic. Provision of narrowed traffic lanes to accommodate temporary cycle lanes may result in poor driver discipline and encroachment into cycle lan es, especially on higher speed routes.

2.8 Temporary Cycle Parking

Types of temporary cycle parking


There are several types of temporary cycle parking that can be installed relatively quickly, including:

  • Proprietary products (i.e. temporary cycle racks or Sheffield Stands) bolted into the ground – so could be removed at a later date if necessary.
  • Other non-proprietary solutions e.g. use of pedestrian barriers.

The appropriate solution will be subject to consideration of capacity and availability of appropriate locations within the overall streetscape.

Cycle parking capacities and layouts

Capacities and layouts for types of temporary parking will be determined by available street space, the solution implemented and the anticipated volume of users. The images below provide an indication of typical spatial requirements and layouts for non-adapted cycle parking which can be used to determine suitable locations and capacity.

Note: Spatial requirements for adapted cycles are available at the Sustrans Design Guidance

Key considerations

  • Cycle parking should not be placed in locations where it would reduce the available footway width or pose a risk to mobility impaired pedestrians.
  • Security of temporary cycle parking – natural surveillance.
  • Cycle parking placed in parking bays or in the carriageway where space allows is likely most appropriate, although a TRO may be required to suspend parking bays.
  • No evidence to suggest that physical distancing needs to be maintained between cycle parking spaces.

Temporary Cycle Parking – Examples


  
Contemporary cycle parking                                               Non-propriety Cycle Parking at an Event                           Sheffield Stand Temporary Cycle Parking

   
Propriety Temporary Cycle Parking

Temporary cycle parking positioning

  • Visible (signposted as necessary), accessible and convenient
  • Secure i.e. well overlooked where possible.
  • Well laid out to aid access/egress and provide ample locking points.

2.9 Mobility Impairment and Safety Considerations

Mobility Impairment Considerations


Key Considerations

  • Existing controlled crossings will likely need to be maintained and accommodated within temporary cycle lanes.
  • Where bus stops are provided to the offside of cycle lanes or tracks, access to the bus stop across the cycle lane will need to be considered and appropriate measures to warn cyclist of the crossing should be included such as signage, markings and clear visibility to the crossing point. Waiting areas should be large enough to cater for expected demand and not obstruct cycling routes to help avoid conflict with mobility impaired pedestrians.
  • Cycle parking should not be placed in locations where it would reduce the available footway width or pose a risk to mobility impaired pedestrians.

 
Crossing of one-way cycle track to access bus stop                                                Example of a temporary bus boarder across cycle track

Road Safety Considerations


Cycle Lanes

  • Narrowing traffic lanes – Narrow traffic lanes increase the risk of side swipe collisions. Careful consideration should be given to routes heavily trafficked by HGVs and buses.Narrow lanes may encourage dangerous overtaking and therefore visibility should be examined.
  • Extensive use of road markings – There is a risk that extensive use of road markings could result in cyclists slipping on them (especially when wet), which is particularly relevant at junctions, bends or braking areas. Markings with a suitable skid resistance should be used.


Cycle lane using suitable marking material on a carriageway – Glasgow

  • Interaction at side roads – There is an increased risk of a cyclist being struck by a vehicle emerging from a side road where drivers are unaware of a temporary cycle lane or if priority is unclear. Adequate warning should be provided i.e. Road markings and traffic signs on side road approaches and priority should be unambiguous to all road users.
  • Surface finishes – Some surface finishes may increase the risk of skidding, particularly during periods of wet weather or ice. The suitability of the surface finish for cyclists should be considered when implementing temporary cycle lanes.
  • Existing surface quality – Avoid providing cycle lanes where the existing surface condition is poor and consider the ongoing maintenance requirements to ensure surface quality is maintained.

Cycle Tracks

Trip hazard to pedestrians – Temporary physical separation measures may pose a trip hazard. Consider measures to maximise visibility of temporary features such as high visibility markings and contrasting colours.

Features being struck by road users – There is a risk that motorcyclists will strike low level segregation features fixed to the carriageway. Visibility, orientation and available widths are all important factors in reducing this risk.

Passively safe features – Impact with roadside features increases the potential severity of a collision. Passively safe features will reduce the damage to a vehicle in the event of a collision and reduce the risk of injury to occupants.

Note: More information on how different features are perceived by the different user groups can be found Glasgow City Council’s Cycle Lane Soft Segregation Trial Report

Note: Post–implementation monitoring should be undertaken to allow for adjustments to mitigate unforeseen issues during the design stage.

2.10 Signage

Types of temporary signage


Traditional temporary signage is likely to be used in the short term, and electronic signage could be utilised temporarily as more drivers return to the road to warn drivers of changes to layouts, priorities and the presence of cyclists.

Placement of signage

  • Placement of signs is very important so as to not decrease space for other users i.e. avoid placement which will reduce effective width of temporary cycle lanes/tracks or adjacent footways.
  • Where possible signage should be within unused space i.e. verges, separation buffers etc. Some separation features allow for the inclusion of signage to identify cycling routes.
  • Placement is a critical consideration for mobility impaired users and should not obstruct routes.
  • A minimum clearance of 2.4m is suggested for any mounted sign in the vicinity of a cycle lane or cycle track.

Branding/wording

  • Should be concise, clear, consistent and unambiguous.
  • Standard and bespoke signage should be used as necessary to designate function/priority/restrictions of temporary cycle lanes/tracks. Bespoke signage may require approval on a scheme-by-scheme basis but is likely to enable a clearer message to be conveyed to users to explain unusual layouts.

Signage for Cyclists – Examples



                                                                On-Street parking bays made inaccessible could be used to place signage

Traffic Management


This section has been designed to provide a comprehensive overview of temporary infrastructure interventions as they relate to traffic management. Reviewed August 17th

                                             

3. Traffic Management

3.1 Modal Filters

Using Modal Filters


A modal filter is a feature used  to create a permeable barrier allowing access to allow only particular forms of transport such as walking and cycling (also referred to as filtered permeability).

Strategic placing of street furniture within the highway can be used to create gateway or separation features for pedestrian and cycle only spaces ranging in size from a  whole street to a ‘parklet’ that provides seating  within a parking space.

Key considerations

  • Ongoing maintenance and ‘reversibility’ for modal features.
  • Flexibility / agility in solutions where periods of restriction and relaxation may appear in waves.
  • Impacts of modal filter features  on accessibility for vulnerable groups
  • Access for emergency vehicles, services, deliveries and/or street works.
  • The positioning of modal features to avoid creating ‘pinch points’ or obstacles for pedestrians and cyclists.
  • Potential to repurpose existing furniture or use normally used for road closures during annual festivals or Christmas events.
  • The potential long term reuse of modal features like benches, planters and other street furniture purchased as Covid 19 temporary measures.

Modal filters can include:

  • Planters
  • Bollards
  • Cycle parking
  • Benches
  • Bins
  • Painted or temporary surfaces

High Streets and Urban Centres – Pedestrian and Cyclist Priority  Zones


New pedestrian and cyclist priority areas could be created with the closure of part or all of a road to vehicular traffic, allowing one way, time limited, resident or emergency access.

  • In shopping areas or close to public buildings or facilities pedestrian movement may ebb and flow with peak times requiring more space to allow physical distancing.
  • Pedestrian priority spaces can provide space for outdoor socialising.
  • Pedestrian and cycle priority streets can provide safe routes for commuters to shops, school or work.

Heritage Areas


The planters and street furniture can provide visually acceptable separation features within heritage areas.

  • Temporary measures should be removable and avoid damage or change to valued physical attributes such as historic buildings, railings, cobbles, paving or structures.
  • Longer term changes such as fixed street furniture, or long-term signage should comply with local planning and  heritage designations and be of materials/ appearance appropriate to the setting.


High Streets and Urban Centres – Parklets


As cafes, bars and restaurants start to reopen there may be a need for outdoor seating to enable physical distancing.  A ‘parklet is a small  temporary or permanent seating area adjacent to a footway  created within suspended parking areas.

‘Parklets’ may be familiar in some tourist or busy urban areas where they have been previously used.

          
    Temporary seating in parking zone (Edinburgh)                 Outdoor seating to maintain physical distance (Amsterdam)                  Temporary seating and cycle parking (London)

Residential Areas


The practical solutions and considerations listed under high streets, urban centres and heritage areas can be applied at a smaller scale to create:

  • Space around schools and public facilities to allow safe distancing, socialising and queuing.
  • Safe active travel routes to school or work
  • Local play streets or home zones

 


          Creating a play street by limiting traffic can create safe spaces to play close to home. 

Example Traffic Management Layouts


  • Entries to temporary pedestrian / cyclist priority zones should be located where vehicles turn safely or take an alternate route.
  • Use modal features to clearly signal to drivers a road/ lane closure or change in priority to shared use.
  • Consider maintaining one way vehicle access or closing a road to through traffic to create quieter routes
  • Access for emergency services should be maintained to closed streets by using movable modal features or collapsible bollards
  • Parklets or modal features should be safely positioned avoiding potential conflicts with motor traffic.

Mobility impairment and road safety considerations


  • Where paint is used to mark out or differentiate pedestrian and cyclist priority areas, avoid marking out informal crossing points as these may not be recognised by drivers.
  • Clearly marked ramps should be provided where levels change
  • Pedestrian surfaces including temporary areas should be  even to walk on avoiding trip hazards and rough ground.
  • The placement of planters should be considered in the overall context of the scheme and be visible at night. This may mean only placing planters in well-lit areas and in low speed environments to reduce the risk of vehicles colliding with them.
  • Spaces shared by pedestrians and cyclists can create conflict for visually impaired pedestrians, so users need to be considered holistically in terms of how the space will be used.
  • There should be sufficient space left between modal features to allow cyclists, wheelchairs and buggies to pass easily
  • All modal filter features should be physically stable and fit for intended purpose.
  • Modal filter features should not create obstacles or trip hazards for mobility impaired users and should have tonal contrast.
  • Consider adding a contrasting stripe to light coloured street furniture (such as natural wood planters) to make them more visible to visually impaired pedestrians.

             
Example of Bollards with reflective strip             Bollards which visually contrast are more          Planter with contrasting stripe
easily seen (Walpole Road, London)                                (Manchester)

         
              Reflective strip on cycle stand                    Temporary traffic management features             Cycle marking on bollard
coloured timber bollard

3.2 Pedestrian Guardrail Removal

Pedestrian Guardrail Removal


The case for removing pedestrian guard rail

Pedestrian guardrails can be obstacles preventing footway users from appropriate physical distancing. A study into the safety benefits of removing guard railing (in a permanent context) can be found here: TfL Collisions Before and After Removal of Pedestrian Railings at 70 Junctions and Crossings, 2017

Process

  • The removal of guardrails should be informed by a Pedestrian Guard Rail Assessment at each location.
  • Planned local schemes to minimise and remove unnecessary railings in line with Scottish Government Guidance (Designing Streets) could be brought forward.

Mobility impairment considerations

  • Changes to crossing points should consider the security and needs of mobility impaired and elderly users.

Consider removing pedestrian guard rail at:

  • pedestrian crossings to avoid pinch points and bottlenecks where physical distancing is not possible.
  • long stretches of guard rail on narrow footways where the guardrail prevents moving onto the road to maintain physical distance or where having stepped onto the road prevents a pedestrian moving freely  back onto the footway.
  • junctions where guardrails channel pedestrians towards narrow crossing points or enclose them in narrow footways creating potential pinch points

3.3 Providing Temporary Guardrailing

Providing Temporary Guardrailing


Process

    • Short Term –  Temporary guard rails should be limited to areas where a clear and specific need has been identified that cannot be fulfilled by other means.
    • Medium and Long Term –  Provision of guard railing should be subject to a Pedestrian Guard Rail Assessment.
    • In heritage areas avoid using brightly coloured temporary guard railings. Medium and long term installation of guard railing should also be subject to planning regulation and should not detract from the valued physical qualities of place.

Mobility impairment considerations

  • Sufficient footway space should be provided for the safe movement of mobility impaired pedestrians.

 

  • Avoid creating obstacles or pinch points.
  • Temporary guardrails should be stable and visible at night.

 

Assessment Principles  – Determining Need

  • Establish the type, scale, social and planning context of the street
  • Examine the street from the perspective of the user groups
  • Look at specific issues in relation to road safety
  • Establish where people want to cross the road if no guardrail is present
  • Using all the information above confirm problem locations
  • Look at what alternative measures could reduce road danger

Temporary pedestrian guard rail assessment 

Pedestrian Guard Rail Assessment demonstrates a clear audit trail of the decisions taken and their justification. All assessments should be made with the professional judgement of experienced staff.

3.4 Transport Hubs

Key Considerations


The Scottish Government has produced the Transport Scotland Transition Plan which sets out a phased approach to resuming services with guidance for travellers, decision makers and transport operators.

  • Urban transport hubs such as train and bus stations have high footfalls and interchange with other types of transport like trams, taxis, cycling and private cars. This may mean multiple queues and potential pinch points where physical distancing may be difficult.
  • To allow for social distancing the Scottish Government estimates a public transport passenger capacity reduction of 10% 25%. Therefore, space should be provided next to stops and ticket offices to accommodate longer queuing and waiting times.

Consider developing a zonal plan of the area around key transport hubs to identify destinations, desire lines and address potential conflicts or issues.

Local Authorities and Transport Service Providers


  • Measures for pedestrian and traffic management including transport interchanges should be developed in consultation between local authorities and transport operators.
  • Changes to road layouts and access arrangements around transport hubs should also consider queue zones and access needs for adjacent businesses and stakeholders.
  • Solutions should be site specific taking account of the local context and volumes of local passengers, pedestrians and traffic.
  • Transport Scotland provides specific Guidance for Transport Operators on Covid 19 measures and practices that are the responsibility of service providers.

Potential Measures

  • Clearly marked routes and pick up zones for private cars and taxis.
  • Clearly marked movement routes for cyclists and pedestrians, avoiding conflict with waiting and queuing zones.
  • In the area adjacent to a transport hub consider introducing one way traffic circulation (for example by closing a lane of traffic) to create space for physical distancing requirements.
  • Consider bus gates on roads (or lanes) approaching the transport hub to prioritise the movement and integration of public transport.

Note: Changes to vehicle access, road layout and traffic management should be clearly visible and well sign posted to drivers.

Additional Measures at Train and Bus Stations


Train Stations
  • Consider enlarging the external station forecourt to provide space for physical distancing and queues.
  • Consider additional cycle parking to support active travel in line with Transport Scotland recommendations.


                   Example of temporary cycle parking

Bus Stations and Stops
  • Consider a reduced number of bus stands and/or temporary relocation of stops if appropriate to create sufficient space for queue management and safe movement of people.


Example of a bus gate (Aberdeen)

Potential Measures

  • Signs, posters and maps indicating safe physical distancing and circulation routes.
  • One way exit and entry routes to ticket offices and facilities.
  • Maximise the space provided for entry and exit.
  • Extra space for safe queueing zones outside the main station or ticket office building
  • Safe waiting and queueing zones for bus, tram, and taxi stands.
  • In busy locations marshals, could be provided (by operators) to manage the number of people entering a building, maintain distancing and manage queues.
  • Consider providing a facility for transport operators to put up advisory passenger notices on personal safety and behaviours based on current guidance.

     

Considerations for Mobility Impaired and Other Vulnerable Groups


  • Clearly marked ramps should be provided where levels change such as where pedestrian zones are extended into parking or carriageway areas.
  • Pedestrian surfaces including temporary areas should be safe and even to walk on avoiding trip hazards and rough ground.
  • Signage or separation measures should not create obstacles or hazards for visually impaired users.
  • Entrance/ exit features and modal filters should provide sufficient space for the safe and easy passage of wheelchairs and buggies.
  • Consider providing extra seating for elderly, vulnerable and mobility impaired passengers in waiting areas. The seat should include a back and arm rest.
  • Existing schemes to provide support for mobility and sight impaired passengers could be adapted to current guidelines and extended to other vulnerable groups.
  • Marshals (provided by operators) could prioritise disabled or other vulnerable groups in queues.
  • Provide hand washing or sanitiser facilities at transport hubs along with temporary bins for safe disposal of wipes and masks.
  • Consider whether additional temporary public toilet facilities might be required and ensure safe access to any existing disabled toilet facilities.

3.5 Parks and Open Spaces

Overview


Green spaces will typically include parks, recreation grounds, publicly accessible playing fields, public open spaces associated with housing developments, canal towpaths, disused railway routes, off-road routes, esplanades and public burial grounds. Some of these are likely to be enclosed by a variety of boundary treatments with ‘pinch points’ at entrances. The surrounding streets tend to have limited space. Green spaces will have high levels of use during warmer weather and daytime hours. Those in urban centres typically have high levels of footfalls and greater likelihood of congestion at entrance and exit points.


           Ground markings can be used in a variety of ways in outdoor settings in order to facilitate physical distancing.

General issues to consider in parks and open spaces


  • Increased usage of green space particularly in the warmer weather and ability to retain physical distance.
  • Some Narrow pathways within parks but also along other recreational routes including waterways.
  • Restricted entry and exit points into green spaces.
  • Visitor car parking for green spaces, loading and maintenance access.
  • Ability to wash hands or hand sanitation.
  • People with disabilities and other groups who may have additional needs to be kept under consideration.
  • Addressing different needs of multiple user groups including pedestrians, cyclists, those visiting graves or remembrance gardens, young people, families, older people and those with disabilities.
  • Need to accommodate different users moving in different patterns across these spaces.
  • Green spaces are seeing increased usage but facilities currently remain closed – toilets is an issue to be considered.

Coronavirus (Covid – 19): Ministerial Statement on Access Rights


This is a summary. For full version please refer to; https://www.gov.scot/publications/ministerial-statement-on-access-rights-during-covid-19/

Taken from a statement by Scottish Ministers on what exercising rights of access responsibly under the Land Reform (Scotland) Act 2003 means during the COVID-19 emergency.

The rights continue to apply, and exercise remains important for people’s physical and mental wellbeing during the current crisis. The idea of responsibility in exercising access rights has, however, always been at the core of that policy, as set out in the Scottish Outdoor Access Code.

Any design adaptations to our parks and open spaces in direct response to Covid-19 should ensure that users can still:

  • Maximise use of  paths, open spaces and quiet roads in their local area
  • Maintain distance from other people
  • Respect the health and safety of farmers and others working the lands
  • Avoid contact – minimise the need to touch surfaces

Specific Issues and Potential Options for Several Categories of Open Spaces


1. Parks

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Key Issues:

  • Pinch points at some entrances
  • Narrow footpaths
  • Toilets and cafes – queue & management of access
  • Increased usage in warm weather
  • Playgrounds potentially closed yet children need places to play

Potential Options:

  • Widen entrances and approaches to enclosed parks
  • Widen footpaths within the park
  • Consider one way routes
  • Temporary hand sanitisation points
  • Consider boundary and perimeter fencing
  • Re-organisation of café seating to permit physical distancing
  • Allowing specific user groups e.g. the elderly to have access to parks at specific times. This has been done during Covid-19 in Dublin
2. Canal towpaths and riverside paths

Key Issues:

  • Pinch points at entry points
  • Narrow paths in some locations
  • Limited space to expand footway/cycleway widths
  • Increased usage particularly along populated stretches
  • Potential conflicts between user groups e.g. cyclists and pedestrians

Potential Options:

  • Introduce signage to remind users to physically distance
  • Introduce priority direction and waiting points for narrow stretches e.g. tunnels
  • Widen footways if possible
  • Consider one way routes
  • Consider introducing ‘passing places’ where width permits
3. Other recreational routes including disused railway routes and public footpaths

Key Issues:

  • Some narrow footways/cycleways
  • Need to touch surfaces e.g. gates
  • Increased usage especially in summer months

Potential Options:

  • Introduce appropriate signage to remind users to physically distance
  • Manage parking numbers – particularly in popular spots e.g. booking of car parking spaces as used by the National Trust
  • Introduce temporary hand sanitisation points
4. Esplanades/Promenades

Key Issues:

  • Increased usage especially in summer months
  • Limited space with high visitor numbers. There have been instances where it is impossible to maintain a physical distance due to number of people

Potential Options:

  • Introduce appropriate signage to remind users to physically distance
  • Manage parking numbers – particularly in popular spots e.g. booking of car parking spaces as used by the National Trust
  • Introduce temporary hand sanitisation points
  • Introduce pop up kiosks and facilities to distribute people and help ability to physically distance.
5. Temporary Kiosks

With increased numbers of people using our parks and open spaces, a potential idea is to introduce more pop up facilities as a medium – long term solution as lockdown restrictions are eased. This would help to distribute people away from key nodes where facilities are located e.g. toilets and allow people to more easily practice physical distancing.

Signage


This section has been designed to provide a comprehensive overview of temporary infrastructure interventions as they relate to signage. Reviewed August 17th

                                                                     

4. Signage

4.1 Designing Signage for All


Inclusivity and Accessibility


As part of the new and increased signage required to communicate the Covid19 requirements in our towns and cities, the following inclusive design principles should be considered:

  • Quantity of information. The sign content should be as visually simple and concise as possible to effectively convey the information
  • Font size. The font size should be considered in relation to the speed / position and cognitive ability of users.
  • Font style. Fonts like ‘Traffic’ used in British road signs, have been designed to be easily read at speed. For other types of clear sans serif typefaces in signage in sentence case could be considered.
  • Colours. Tonal contrast is essential to make type legible to all. Some colours that appear to contrast such as green and brown are tonally similar. To check legibility take a black and white photo or photocopy, lettering that appears grey has poor tonal contrast. Stark black on white text (or vice versa) can also be difficult for some users.
  • Spacing / Layout. Information on a sign should be laid out clearly with enough space between text and images to be easily read.
  • Symbology. Symbols can be easy to understand but avoid images that convey unclear, confusing, or unintentionally excluding messages. For example, a shared use path symbol should include both pedestrian and cycle images rather than just a cycle image. Consider using recognised British Standard symbols for clarity.

       
Lamp post wrap sign                     Advisory signage      

Considerations

Provide A Coordinated Signage Strategy – Consider how the signage can successfully guide a journey through a space or local area. Ensure that routes are easy to follow including new street layouts. Inconsistency of information and style can be confusing.

Reflect the Identity of the Place – The quantity and appearance of signage needs to be adaptable to location. A heritage location may require a different appearance to that in a modern business or residential district.

4.2 Advisory Signage for Covid-19

Key Considerations


Use Positive Messages – Communicate in a friendly manner. Some off the shelf signs could induce stress. Carefully consider how the wording, colour palette and typography can alter the tone.

Let People Know about Changes – Publicising changes to streets and traffic management can help people to plan local travel and promote public confidence. This can be particularly important vulnerable and mobility impaired users.

         
Provide Information about change, Transport for Greater Manchester                              Use design and colour to  make advisory messages appealing. Scottish Natural Hertiage

Potential Content

  • Welcome Back! We’re open for business
  • COVID-19 – Please maintain physical distance
  • COVID-19 – Thank you for practicing physical distancing
  • COVID-19 – Please respect local communities and those who may be at higher risk
  • COVID-19 – Please follow the one way system
  • COVID-19 – Please keep your distance – Protect Yourselves and Others
  • COVID 19 – Share with Care. These paths are for everyone.

         
 Ensure signage is inclusive. City of Edinburgh Council          Use positive messages, queue marker

Note: All signage should  use the term ‘physical distance ‘where appropriate and not refer to the 2m distance as guidance may change over time.

4.3 Walking and Wheeling Signage Principles

Walking and Wheeling Signage Principles


Siting Considerations for Signage in the footway 

  • Existing posts, columns and structures should be used wherever possible.
  • Avoid creating obstacles in the footway or pedestrian ‘pinch points’ when placing temporary signs.
  • Where signs facing moving traffic are erected above footways, or in areas likely or intended to be used by pedestrians, a headroom of 2300 mm is recommended, with 2100 mm as an absolute minimum. A clearance of 2400 mm should be maintained over a cycle track or a shared cycling and walking facility.
  • Where posts are erected on footways, minimum footway widths for movement should be maintained (a preferred minimum of 2000 mm and an absolute minimum of 1500 mm of unobstructed width to allow the passage of wheelchairs, double buggies etc).

4.4 Cycling Route Signage Principles

Cycling Route Signage Principles


Types of temporary signage

Traditional temporary signage is likely to be used in the short term, and electronic signage could be utilised temporarily as more drivers return to the road to warn drivers of changes to layouts, priorities and the presence of cyclists.

Placement of signage

  • Placement of signs is very important so as to not decrease space for other users i.e. avoid placement which will reduce effective width of temporary cycle lanes/tracks or adjacent footways.
  • Where possible signage should be within unused space i.e. verges, separation buffers etc. Some separation features allow for the inclusion of signage to identify cycling routes and temporary post mounted signs can help with narrow cross sections.
  • Placement is a critical consideration for mobility impaired users and should not obstruct routes.
  • A minimum clearance of 2.4m is suggested for any mounted sign in the vicinity of a cycle lane or cycle track.

Branding/wording

  • Should be concise, clear, consistent and unambiguous.
  • Standard and bespoke signage should be used as necessary to designate function/priority/restrictions of temporary cycle lanes/tracks. Bespoke signage may require approval on a scheme-by-scheme basis but is likely to enable a clearer message to be conveyed to users to explain unusual layouts

     
Signage example promoting physical distancing via single file         International signage example prohibiting
travel through a narrow shared path – Glasgow                               cyclists from overtaking


Temporary pedestrian and cyclist only roads – Edinburgh


Example of signage placed in a suspended parking bay – Glasgow

4.5 Traffic Management Signage Principles

Traffic Management Signage Principles


Types of Signage 

  • Regulatory traffic signs should conform with national standards. Guidance on permanent and temporary signs are set out in The Traffic Signs Regulations 2016, UK and the  Traffic Signs Manual.
  • Where there is no existing guidance on signage for a particular purpose or where bespoke non prescribed local signage is proposed, applications need to be made for their use. Applications to use a Non-Prescribed sign or marking may only be made by the relevant Road Authority and follow the same process laid out for permanent signage approvals.

       
Examples of signage, Department for Transport

Placement of Traffic Signs

  • Comply with national and local roads authority standards, planning and road safety requirements.
  • Ensure new and temporary road layouts are clearly signed both at location and in advance to allow road users to take appropriate action.
  • Ensure that temporary signs are appropriately placed to be visible to road users while avoiding creating obstacles or hazards to pedestrians and cyclists.
  • Where possible utilise existing poles and try to minimise street clutter. If there is no alternative to siting a sign in the footway, minimum footway widths should be maintained.
  • In heritage areas ensure the placement and appearance of traffic signs do not detract from the important physical qualities for which the area is valued.
  • If appropriate existing electronic signboards can be used  to  alert drivers to change.

4.6 Walking and Wheeling Signage Examples

Green = Short-term (immediate)
Purple = Medium-term  (6 – 18 months)
Orange = Long-term (18+ months)

Signage Type - ImageTimeframeAdvantagesDisadvantages
Floor Signage

  • Clear message

  • Readily Available

  • Adaptable - can be used as a reminder to physical-distance or as a queuing marker

  • Easy to remove

  • Adaptable to tie in with an overall signage strategy

  • Easily replace/removed if required


  • May become worn quickly

  • More difficult to apply to certain surfaces e.g. cobblestones.

Floor Stenciling

  • Fast installation

  • High impact clear message


  • Not part of a refined, coordinated strategy

  • Could be difficult to remove and would not be a preferred solution on high quality paving materials


Pedestrian and Cyclist Temporary Signage

  • Clear message

  • Many of these signs are already in place across our towns and cities to provide the necessary information

  • Readily available and can be installed quickly


  • Can appear quite intimidating

  • Often contribute to street clutter and take up space on the footway

  • Not part of overall signage strategy

  • May not be best placed in a heritage context long-term

Bus Stop Signage

  • Clear focused message targeted at a specific location and activity

  • Easy availability/printing that can be updated as required over time

  • Can be installed onto existing street furniture (bus shelters)

  • Potential to tie in to wider signage strategy

  • Easy to remove


  • May not be readable unless you are close to the sign

  • Easier to apply where bus shelters are present

Monolith Signage

  • Utilises existing signage opportunities either through new printed or digital displays

  • Potential to tie in to a wider signage strategy

  • Relatively easy to change the information that is displayed

  • Easy to remove


  • Locations are not flexible so may not be best placed

Banners Mounted on Lighting Columns

  • Utilises existing street furniture with new printed banners

  • Does not contribute to additional street clutter

  • Can be changed over time if required

  • Potential to tie in to a wider signage strategy

  • Relatively easy to remove


  • Not all towns have this existing signage opportunity

Bespoke Banners

  • Can incorporate into a wider signage strategy

  • Bespoke to the place

  • Large, clear message opportunity

  • Can be incorporated with new barriers or existing infrastructure for display

  • Easy to remove


  • Location needs to be carefully selected for large signs

  • Obstructs clear views through a space

Utilising Building Frontages

  • Utilises building frontages and blank facades to display signage and therefore not contributing to additional street clutter

  • Can be changed over time if required

  • Potential to tie in to a wider signage strategy

  • Easy to remove


  • Permissions required

  • Blank building facades are a good location for signage but needs to be an appropriate siting for the sign

Bollards incorporating signage

  • Combines street furniture and signage

  • Potential to tie in to overall signage strategy

  • More discreet signage opportunity

  • Neat, compact solution

  • Potential to tie in to overall signage strategy


  • Difficult to remove

  • Careful consideration needs to be given to siting and avoidance of unnecessary additional bollards.

Motion activated audio signage

  • When motion activated, an audio message is played

  • Provides an opportunity to use another method of communication

  • Extends to some wider user groups

  • Neat solution reducing street clutter strong metal casing and secure steel post fixing system

  • Easy to change the audio message

  • Messages bespoke to the place is easy to achieve

  • Solar technology means no power source is required

  • Innovative solution for the communication of public safety messages


  • Potentially could be quite repetitive and anyone working outdoors would hear messages repeatedly

  • If broken for any reason no message is visible. Would need to be in addition to more conventional signage


4.7 Cycling Routes Signage Examples

Green = Short-term (immediate)
Purple = Medium-term  (6 – 18 months)
Orange = Long-term (18+ months)

Signage Type - ImageTimeframeAdvantagesDisadvantages



  • Existing standards and products may be appropriated for design of some temporary interventions e.g. off the shelf traffic management products

  • Readily Available

  • Typically low maintenance

  • Potential to tie into a wider signage strategy

  • Easily installed and replaced/removed if required

  • Less likely to contribute to street clutter or create obstacles in footway due to slender profile

  • Sign faces can be mounted to existing street furniture

  • Minimum mounting heights likely to be readily achievable


  • Appropriate locations to site may be limited within a streetscape due to spatial requirements of frame base

  • Can contribute to street clutter and create obstacles in the footway if poorly located

  • Potential for signage to be moved/interfered with if not physically fixed to its location

  • Need to ensure consistency of style and messaging across routes, cities etc.

  • Mounting heights may pose  other risks e.g. struck by vehicle wing mirrors 




  • Existing standards for sign types may be appropriated for design of some temporary interventions

  • Readily Available

  • Typically low maintenance

  • Potential to tie into a wider signage strategy

  • Easily installed and replaced/removed if required


  • Potential for signage to be moved/interfered with if not physically fixed to its location

  • Need to ensure consistency of style and messaging across routes, cities etc.




    • Clear message

    • Existing standards be appropriated for design of some temporary interventions

    • Readily available

    • Easily installed - techniques observed ranging from spray painted to thermoplastic screed depending on timeframes and use in local context


    • Replacement/removal may require specialist works

    • Installation of markings may require removal of existing carriageway markings to provide clear messaging

    • Need to ensure consistency of style and messaging across routes, cities etc.

    • Temporary route markings through junctions will likely be subject to high levels of wear and may need to be of a higher specification to avoid slippery conditions for cyclists and motorcyclists


    4.8 Traffic Management Signage Examples

    Green = Short-term (immediate)
    Purple = Medium-term  (6 – 18 months)
    Orange = Long-term (18+ months)

    Signage Type - ImageTimeframeAdvantagesDisadvantages
    Existing electronic display signage


    • Clear message

    • Uses existing infrastructure

    • Message can easily be changed


    • Location are not flexible

    • Costly to install new signage

    Temporary advance notice signs




    • Clear message

    • Readily available

    • Can be movable or pole mounted


    • Movable temporary signs can obstruct footways if poorly placed

    • Short-term measure only

    Localised temporary signage for road closure


    • Clear message

    • Can include local information

    • Readily available and can be installed quickly

    • Can be mounted on temporary barriers or street furniture


    • Can appear intimidating

    • Can contribute to street clutter if poorly places

    • May not be suitable in a heritage area context long term

    Advance warning signs




    • Clear message

    • Readily available

    • Can be movable or pole mounted


    • Can appear intimidating

    • Can contribute to street clutter if poorly places

    • May not be suitable in a heritage area context long term


    Additional Resources


    This section includes links to useful guidance around the delivery of temporary walking and cycling interventions. We will add to these links as more guidance becomes available.

    Any guidance used should be applicable to your specific context. All interventions should comply with the relevant regulations in your context.

    Public Health Scotland: Professional Briefing on Spaces for People

    UK Government: Safer Public Places During Covid

    Sustrans: Covid-adapted School Travel Measures

    Transport Scotland: Guidance on Temporary Traffic Regulation Orders and Notices (COVID-19)

    Department for Transport (DfT): Reallocating road space in response to COVID-19

    Department for Transport (DfT): Traffic signs to support physical distancing

    Urban Design Group: Fast Urban Change – a how to guide

    Landscape Institute: Seven design principles for pop-up infrastructure

    Transport For London: Streetspace for London guidance

    Living Streets: A guide to low traffic neighbourhoods

    National Association of City Transportation Officials: Streets for Pandemic Response and Recovery 

    The Mobility and Access Committee for Scotland (MACS): Temporary Street measures during Coronavirus crisis

    Various Scottish Active Travel Organisations: Active Travel Code of Conduct